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Civil Society Shifts, Challenges and Responses to COVID-19: Ireland, Scotland and Wales


This paper discusses to what degree did civil society organisations (CSOs) felt threatened during COVID-19 in Scotland, Wales and Ireland. The authors explore how civil society organisations handled lockdowns. The authors invited three CSOs from Scotland, Wales and Ireland to describe the variations between cultural and political contexts and the influence of social and environmental dynamics on their work during COVID-19. These three countries have been challenged to a great extent by a high level of uncertainty owing to the full lockdowns during COVID-19. Hitherto, the people of Scotland, Wales and Ireland have been living relaxed and operating smoothly. Lockdowns have created challenges for successful CSOs. This paper focuses on the political reactions and social dynamics of CSOs focused on active grassroots participatory democracy and the philosophy that comes with it as a democratic decision-making mechanism where people have the power to vote on progress in the area of public participation and social change. The central finding in our investigation is that CSOs power to influence their politicians or society and become engaged in changes within their society is minimised during the pandemic.


CSOs in COVID-19, Lockdown Shifts in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, United Kingdom



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