Ecosystem Services of Chariganga and Arpara Beel in Nadia District, West Bengal: A Geographical Enquiry
The ecological set up of the deltaic Bengal has immensely been benefitted by the ecosystem services extended by the freshwater wetlands. Along with the diverse ecological benefits, those floodplain wetlands serve the adjacent agrarian community through the provision of free goods and services. The present study has attempted to identify the ecological resources provided by the Chariganga and Arpara Beel and its impact on the livelihood patterns of the rural inhabitants. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques have been used for the study. Ecosystem Service Index (ESI) has been computed to quantify the values of ecosystem services in each category for the dry and wet periods. Nearly 33 ecosystem services are identified which have significantly influenced the socio-economic lifestyle of the inhabitants of three adjacent villages like Arpara, Gotpara, and Sultanpur but not homogeneously in terms of space, time, and status of stakeholders. The computed ESI values reveal that the maximum index value in each category of ecosystem services has been recorded at Chariganga Wetland in both dry and wet seasons. Moreover, the fluctuation of ESI between the two seasons is least at Chariganga Wetland (0.03) compared to Arpara Wetland (0.28). Spatio-temporal variation in availability of resources has conspicuously altered the yearlong utilisation pattern of wetlands’ resources and put a noticeable imprint upon the diverse economic activities and cultural practices of the beneficiaries. The seasonal transformation of a large segment of the studied wetlands in wet and dry months has noticeably influenced the livelihood strategies of the natives. As a consequence, dynamism in utilisation pattern and contrasted societal views concerning the wetland-people interdependency has come into existence.
Ecosystem Service, Ecosystem Service Index, Ecological Resources, Wetland-people Interdependency
- Akwetaireho, S., & Getzner, M. (2010). Livelihood dependence on ecosystem services of local residents: A case study from Mabamba Bay wetlands (Lake Victoria, Uganda). International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 6(1-2), 75-87.https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2010.521139 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2010.521139
- Bagchi, K. (1944). The Ganges Delta (1sted.). University of Calcutta
- Banerjee, D. (2018). Ecosystem services and environmental valuation: Need and application. Indian Journal of Landscape Systems and Ecological Studies, 41(1), 155-168.
- Baral, S., Basnyat, B., Khanal, R., &Gauli, K. (2016). A total economic valuation of wetland ecosystem services: An evidence from Jagadishpur Ramsar site, Nepal. The Scientific World Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2605609 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2605609
- Barbier, E. B., Hacker, S. D., Kennedy, C., Koch, E. W., Stier, A. C., & Silliman, B. R. (2011). The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological Monograph, 81(2), 169 –193. https://doi.org/10.1890/10-1510.1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1890/10-1510.1
- Bhattacharya, S., Ganguli, A., Bose, S., & Mukhopadhyay, A. (2012). Biodiversity, traditional practices and sustainability issues of East Kolkata Wetlands: A significance Ramsar site of West Bengal, (India). Reaserach and Reviews in BioSciences, 6(11), 340-347.
- Bolund, P., &Hunhammar, S. (1999). Ecosystem services in urban areas, Ecological Economics, 29, 293 – 301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00013-0
- Brander, L., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Martín-López, B., & Verma, M. (2010). The economics of valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity. Geneva: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity - TEEB.
- Clarkson B. R., Ausseil A. E., &Gerbeaux, P. (2013). Wetland ecosystem services. In J. R. Dymond (Ed.) Ecosystem services in New Zealand - conditions and trends (pp. 192-202). Manaaki Whenua Press.
- Das, S., Behera, B., & Mishra, A. (2015). Determinants of household use of wetland resources in West Bengal, India. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 23(5), 803-816. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-015-9420-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-015-9420-8
- Emerton, L. (2015). Economic valuation of wetlands: total economic value. In C. M. Finlayson et al., (Eds.), The Wetland Book (pp. 1-6). 10.1007/978-94-007-6172-8_301-1
- Everard, M., Kangabam, R.., Tiwari, M. K., McInnes, R.., Kumar, R.., Talukdar. G. H., Dixon, H., Joshi, P., Allan, R., Joshi, D., & Das. L. (2019). Ecosystem service assessment of selected wetlands of Kolkata and the Indian Gangetic Delta: multi-beneficial systems under differentiated management stress. Wetlands Ecology and Management,27, 405-426. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-019-09668-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-019-09668-1
- Ghosh, K. (2016). Avian diversity and species richness in Khanyan and adjoining areas of Hooghly District, West Bengal. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies. 3(3), 119-126.
- Maltby, E., & Acreman, M. C. (2011). Ecosystem services of wetlands: pathfinder for a new paradigm. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 56(2), 1341-1359. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2011.631014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2011.631014
- Mandal, M. H. & Siddique, G. (2018). Water birds at Purbasthali oxbow lake: A geographical study. Researchers World, IX (Special Issue), 7-19.
- Mandal, M. H., Siddique, G., & Roy, A. (2018). Threats and opportunities of ecosystem services: A geographical study of Purbasthali oxbow Lake. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 16(4), 1-24. 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/43229 DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/JGEESI/2018/43229
- Mangi, H. O. (2016). Estimation of monetary values of the ecosystem services flow at the tidal Elbe River. Advances in Ecology.1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6742786 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6742786
- MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press.
- Mukherjee, S. (2008). Economic Valuation of a Wetland in West Bengal, India. International Water Management Institute- TATA Water Policy Research Program Seventh Annual Partners’ Meet 1, MPRA, 254-266
- Saha, M. (2016). A Study of the Wetlands of Burdwan Subdivision, West Bengal with Reference to Resource Potentialities and Employment Generation, Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, The University of Burdwan.
- Sarkar, U., Nag, S. K., Das, M. K., Karnatak, G., & Sudheesan, D. (2016). Conservation Wetlands- An Effective Climate Change Adaptation in India. Kolkata: ICAR- Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute.
- Sharma, B., Rasul, G., & Chettri, N. (2015). The economic value of wetland ecosystem services: Evidence from the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Ecosystem Services, 12, 84-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.02.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.02.007
- Zedler, J. B., & Kercher, S. (2005). Wetland resources: Status, trends, ecosystem services, and restorability. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30, 39–74. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144248 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144248