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Energy is required for development because it facilitates production and makes day to day activity less cumbersome. The industrial revolution and the progress after that would not have been possible without increased energy use. Issues related to energy use in developing countries are complicated. These countries use energy derived mostly from non-renewable sources such as petroleum, coal and inefficient fuels like firewood, and biomass. Thus, energy use leads to environmental pollution. Hence, policy measures aimed at the development imperative may conflict with policies relating to conserving the environment. Against this background, the paper tries to examine the relationship between energy use and development at the macro and micro levels and how energy use affects the environment. This study is exploratory and relies on traditional literature review. Our study relates to nonrenewable energy sources in the context of developing countries. We find that there is no uniformity of results in the relationship between energy use, development and the state of the environment. We recommend further studies to ascertain the causes of such inconclusiveness. At the household level, people are deprived of the assured and adequate supply of efficient fuels for domestic use. Hence, policy measures should strive to ensure ease of access to reliable and affordable energy sources as development proceeds.
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