South African universities have been under tremendous pressure to improve preservice teachers’ quality and implement the Minimum Requirement for Teacher Education (MRTEC) as a direct response to the outcry of poor training of teachers. Preservice teachers face classroom management challenges during their teaching practice. Therefore, this study aims to identify the gap in the training programme and propose alternative pathways that might improve classroom practice to enable preservice teachers to bridge the gap between theory and practice. This study draws on classroom observation by university supervisors during teaching practice. Six university supervisors were purposively and conveniently sampled to participate in this study. Online narrative reflections, Zoom group meetings, and WhatsApp one-on-one semi-structured interviews were used to generate data as part of qualitative inquiry. Findings identify weak coordination between fundamental modules and co-modules as the hindrance to effective classroom management. Yet, university supervisors are critical of the poor implementation of classroom management skills as though they are immune from the training process. Therefore, this study recommends that the Teaching Practice Unit introduce a compulsory practical demonstration centre that will use nearby schools before practice teaching officially commences.
Classroom Management Skills, Preservice Teachers, Student Teachers, University Supervisors (US), South Africa, BRICS
- Barbeau, A. M., Burda, J., & Siegel, M. (2013). Perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e-cigarette users: a qualitative approach. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 8(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1940-0640-8-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1940-0640-8-5
- Bean, S. (2021). Skills for Educators: Classroom Management to Promote Learning. http://recapp.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.EducatorSkillsDetail&PageID=78.
- Brophy, J. (2006). History of research on classroom management. In CM Evertson & CS Weinstein (eds). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice and contemporary issues (pp. 17-43). Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Christofferson, M., & Sullivan, A. L. (2015). Preservice teachers’ classroom management training: A survey of self-reported training experiences, content coverage, and preparedness. Psychology in the Schools, 52, 248–264. http://www.10.1002/pits.21819 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21819
- Claessens, L., van Tartwijk, J., Pennings, H., van der Want, A., Verloop, N., den Brok, P. & Wubbels, T. (2016). Beginning and experienced secondary school teachers’ self-and student schema in positive and problematic teacher-student relationships. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 88-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.12.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.12.006
- de Jong, R. J., van Tartwijk, T., Veldman, I., & Verloop, N. (2013). Student teachers’ Discipline strategies: relations with self-images, anticipated student responses and control orientation. Educational Studies, 39(5), 582-592. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2013.814562 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2013.814562
- DeJonckheere, M, & Vaughn, L. M. (2019). Semistructured interviewing in primary care research: A balance of relationship and rigour. Fam Med Community Health, 7(2), e000057. http://www.10.1136/fmch-2018-000057 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/fmch-2018-000057
- Dibapile, W. (2012). A review of literature on teacher efficacy and classroom management. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 9(2), 79-92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19030/tlc.v9i2.6902
- Dube, M. C., Mncube, D. W., & Ulianya, C. (2021). University supervisors’ perceptions on preservice teachers’ lesson planning during teaching practice: A case of a South African university, International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 15(5), 497-511. http://hdl.handle.net/10500/27302
- Eisenman, G., Edwards, S., Cushman, C. A. (2015). Bringing reality to classroom management in teacher education. The Professional Educator, 39(1), 1-12. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1062280
- Ferrier-Kerr, J. (2009). Establishing professional relationships in practicum settings. Teacher Education, 25, 790-934. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.01.001
- Flower, A., McKenna, J., Muething, C., Bryant, D., & Bryant, B. (2014). Effects of the good behaviour game on classwide off-task behaviour in a high school basic algebra resource classroom. Behaviour Modification, 38(1), 45-68. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445513507574 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445513507574
- Francis, O. B., & Oluwatoyin, F. C. (2019). Principals’ personnel characteristic skills: A predictor of teachers’ classroom management in ekiti state secondary school. International Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, 7(1), 72-103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17583/ijelm.2019.3573
- Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., Briere, D. E., & MacSuga-Gage, A. S. (2014). Preservice teacher. training in classroom management: A review of state accreditation policy and teacher preparation programs. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37(2), 106–120. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0888406413507002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0888406413507002
- Frey, L. M., & Wilhite, K. (2005). Our five basic needs: application for understanding the function of behaviour. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40(3), 156-160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/10534512050400030401
- Gabriel, E., & Matthews, L. (2011). Choice theory: an effective approach to classroom discipline and management. The Journal of Adventist Education, 73 (2011). p. 20-23.
- Glasser, W. (1998). Choice theory. Harper Collins.
- Glasser, W. (2001). Fibromyalgia—hope from a completely new perspective. William Glasser, Inc.
- Goh, P. S. C., & Matthews, B., (2011). Listening to the concerns of student teachers in Malaysia during teaching practice. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(3), 92-103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2011v36n3.2
- Greenberg, J., Putman, H., & Walsh, K. (2013). Training our future teachers: Classroom management. National Council on Teacher Quarterly.
- Henaku, C. B., & Pobbi, M. A. (2017). Measuring teacher classroom management skills: A comparative analysis of distance trained and conventional trained teachers. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(10), 54-64.
- Jansen, J. (2004). Changes and continuities in South Africa’s Higher Education system, 1994-2004. In L. Chisholm & H. Bhorat (eds.). Changing class: education and social change in post-apartheid South Africa, London; New York: Cape Town: New York, NY: Zed Books; HSRC Press; Distributed in the USA exclusively by Palgrave Macmillan. 293–314.
- Kabilan, M. K. (2013). A phenomenological study of an international teaching practicum: preservice teachers’ experiences of professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 36, 198-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.07.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.07.013
- Kavrayici, C. (2020). Evaluation of the factors affecting teacher identity development of pre-service teachers: A mixed method study. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 20(89), 93-110. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejer/issue/57497/815852 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2020.89.5
- König, S. C. (2015). Measuring classroom management expertise (CME) of teachers: a video-based assessment approach and statistical results. Cogent Education, 2(1), 991178. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2014.991178 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2014.991178
- Kurkut, P. (2017). Classroom management in pre-service teachers' teaching practice demo lessons: A comparison to actual lessons by in-service english teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(4), 1-17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v5i4.2164
- Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. J. (2003). Classroom Management that Works. Alexandria
- Mkhasibe, R. G., Mncube, D. W., & Ajani, O. A. (2020). Exploring novice teachers' experiences of teaching in English across the curriculum in rural schools in South Africa, South African Journal of Higher Education, 34(3), 9-20. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.5177714
- Osborne, M. (2018). Class size debate: What do teachers think? https://nccppr.org/class-size-debate-teachers-think/.
- Peters, J. H. (2012). Are they ready? Final year preservice teachers’ learning about managing student behaviour. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(9), 18-42. https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2012v37n9.2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2012v37n9.2
- Sethusa, M. J. (2020). Exploring teaching practice supervisors' experiences of student support in an open, Distance And E-Learning Institution, 17(8), 1-13.
- Sibiya, N. I., Gamede, B. T., & Uleanya, C. (2019). Classroom management challenges experienced by female educators in rural secondary schools in South Africa. Gender & Behaviour Journal, 17(2), 12894-12909. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC-16eb3ec6b4
- Sieberer-Nagler, K. (2016). Effective classroom- management and positive teaching. Canadian Center of Science and Education, 9(1), 163-164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n1p163
- Sivri, H., & Balci, E. (2015). Preservice teachers’ classroom management self-efficacy beliefs, International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 7(4), 37-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.15345/iojes.2015.04.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15345/iojes.2015.04.004
- Teherani, A., Martimiankis, T. & Stenfors-Hayes, T. (2015). Choosing a qualitative research approach. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 6(6), 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-15-00414.1
- Uleanya, C. (2021). Mentorship and class size: approach to building self-confidence rural based preservice teachers. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Educational Studies, 16(2), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.18848/2327-011X/CGP/v16i02/1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18848/2327-011X/CGP/v16i02/1-9
- Uleanya, C., Gamede, B. T., & Kutame, A. P. (2020). Rural and Irrelevant: an exploration of learning challenges among undergraduates rural Universities. African Identities Journal, 18(4), 377-391.http://www.10.1080/14725843.2020.1767037. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14725843.2020.1767037