Berelson, B. (1976). Social Science research on population: A Review.Population and Development Review, 2 (2), 219-266.
Basten, S. (2010). Television and fertility. Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, 55, 67-82.
Bhardwaj, S. & Tungdim, M. G. (2010). Reproductive health profile of the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe women of Rajasthan, India.The Open Anthropology Journal, 3, 181-187.
Bhattacharyya, R. (2009). Examining the changing status and role of middle class Assamese women: lessons from the lives of university students.PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle, United Kingdom. Retrieved on 28 February 2018 from, https://theses.ncl.ac.uk/dspace/handle/10443/303
Bhattacharyya, R. (2013). Are we empowered? Stories of young Indian working women, Saarbrücken, Germany: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, (ISBN: 978-3-659-20580-4)
Bhattacharyya, M. (2016). Drawing a link—women’s empowerment and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act: A study conducted in the Goalpara District, Assam, Space and Culture, India, 3(3), 21-27, doi:10.20896/saci.v3i3.180
Bhattacharyya, R. & Vauquline, P. (2013). A mirage or a rural life line? Analysing the impact of Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act on women beneficiaries of Assam. Space and Culture, India, 1(1), 83-101. doi:10.20896/saci.v1i1.10
Blake, J. & Delpinal, J. (1982).Educational attainment and reproduction preferences: Theory and Evidence. In C. John & R. Mackensen, (eds) Determinants of fertility trends: Theories Re-Examined, Liege: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, (IUSSP).
Bogue, D. J. (1969). Principles of demography.New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Caldwell, J. C. (1980). Education as a factor in mortality decline: An examination of Nigerian data.Population Studies, 33(3): 395-413.
Census of India (2011).Primary census abstract. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, Ministry of Home Affairs,Government of India
Cochrane, S. H. (1979). Fertility and education: what do we really know?. World Bank staff Occasional Papers; No. OCP 26. Baltimore, MD: The Johns HopkinsUniversity Press.
Daly, P. A. (1982). Unpaid family workers: long-term decline continues. Monthly Labor Review.105 (10), 3-5. Retrieved on 11 January 2018 from, https://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1982/10/art1full.pdf
DeRose, L. F. & Ezeh, A. C. (2010).Decision making patterns and contraceptive use: Evidence from Uganda.Population Research and Policy Review,29(3), 423-439.Retrieved on 08 February 2018 from, http://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/70594
Dreze, J. & Murthi, M. (2001).Fertility, education and development.Population and Development Review, 27(1), 33-63.
Driver, D. (1963).Differential fertility in Central Edwin. India, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Germain, A. (1975). Status and role of women as factors in fertility behaviour: A policy analysis, Studies in Family Planning, 6(7), 192-200.
GOI, (2010).The right of children to free and compulsory education (RTE) act, 2009.Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India.
Goldstein, S. (1972). The Influence of labour force and education in Thailand, Population Studies, 26(3), 419-436.
Gupta, M. D. (1996). Life course perspectives on women's autonomy and health outcomes.Health Transition Review, Supplement 6, 213-231.
Haupt A., Kane, T. T., Haub, C. & Population Reference Bureau (2011). The Population Reference Bureau's population handbook. Washington, D.C: Population Reference. Retrieved on 11 March from, http://www.prb.org/pdf11/prb-population-handbook-2011.pdf
International Institute for Population Sciences & ICF (2017). National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16: India, Mumbai, IIPS.
International Institute for Population Sciences (2014). National Family Health Survey 2015-16 (NFHS-4) Interviewer’s Manual. Mumbai, IIPS. Retrieved on 11 March from, http://Rchiips.Org/Nfhs/Nfhs4/Manual/Nfhs-4%20interviewer%20manual.Pdf
Jacobson, J. (1992). Gender bias: Roadblock to sustainable development. Worldwatch Paper, no. 110. Washington, Worldwatch Institute.
Jaffe, A. J. & Azumi, K. (1960). The birth rates and cottage industries in under developed countries. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 9 (1), 52-63.
Jain, A. K. (1981).The effect of female education on fertility: A simple explanation.Demography, 18(4), 577-595.
Jejeebhoy, S. J. (1995). Women’s education, autonomy, and reproductive behaviour: Experience from developing countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, achievements: Reflections on the measurement of women's empowerment.Development and Change, 30, 435-464.
Kabeer, N. (2005). Gender equality and women's empowerment: A critical analysis of the third millennium development goal. Gender & Development, 13(1), 13-24.
Koppen, K. (2006). Second births in Western Germany and France. Demographic Research, 14(14), 295-330. Retrieved 30 December from, https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol14/14/14-14.pdf.
Kravdal, O. (2001). The high fertility of college educated women in Norway: An artifact of the separate modeling of each parity transition. Demographic Research, 5(6), 187-216. Retrieved on 30 November from, https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol5/6/5-6.pdf.
Kumar D., Kalia, M., Goel, N. K. & Sharma, M. K. (2016).Differentials of spousal communications and reproductive desires of couples in urban slums of Chandigarh, India.International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, 3(9), 2637-2644.Retrieved on 28 January from, http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20163088.
Mahadevan, K. (1979). Sociology of fertility: Determinants of fertility differentials in South India.New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, Pvt. Ltd.
Mahmud, S. (1988). Exploring the relationship between women's work and fertility: the Bangladesh context. Bangladesh Development Study, 16(4), 99-113.
Majumdar, D. N. (1947).The matrix of Indian Culture. Lucknow: The Universal Publications Ltd.
Melinda, M., Mencarini, L., Tanturri, M. L. & Begall, K. (2008). Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands. Demographic Research, 18(1), 1-26. Retrieved on 20 January 2018 from, https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol18/1/18-1.pdf.
Nag, M. (1973). Tribal-non-tribal fertility differentials in India.Demography India, 2(1), 104-120.
Nagda, B. L. (2003). Ethno-demographic determinants of high fertility among Tribes.Anthropologist, 5(3), 185-188.
Nanda, S. (2005). Demography and ethnography of fertility behaviour: A study of non-industrial population in India.Journal of Human Ecology, 18(4), 301-308.
Oyediran, Kola & Abenihe-Isiugo, U.C. & Akinrinola, B. (2006). Correlates of spousal communication on fertility and family planning among the Yoruba of Nigeria.Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 37(3), 441-460.
Patidar, H. & Singh, M. B. (2014). Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among tribal women: Evidence from South-East Rajasthan, India.International Journal of Current Research, 6(8), 7927-7934.
Patidar, H. (2015). Pregnancy outcomes among adolescent tribal women: Insights from South-East Rajasthan, India. Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health,12(2), 1-9.
Phan, L. D. (2016). Women’s empowerment and fertility preferences in South East Asia. A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Rabbi, A. M. F. (2012).Mass media exposure and its impact on fertility: Current scenario of Bangladesh.Journal of Scientific Research, 4(2), 383-395.
Rindfuss, R. R., Bumpass, L., St. John, C. (1980). Education and fertility: implications for the roles women occupy. American Sociological Review, 45 (1), 431–447.
Rindfuss, R. R. & Brewster K. L., (1996). Childrearing and fertility. Population and Development Review, 22 (Supplement), 258-289.
Roth, E. A., Ray, A. K. & Mohanthy, B. (1983). The Delineation of fertility strategies in a tribal population of India: The Koyas of Koraput district, Orissa.Journal of Anthropological Research, 39 (3), 65-76. Retrieved 30 November 2017 from, http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/jar.39.3.3629671.
Rowlands, J. (1995). Empowerment examined, Development in Practice, 5(2), 101 – 107
Rowlands, J. (1997). Questioning empowerment: Working with women in Honduras. London, Oxfam.
Singh M. B. & Patidar H. (2012). Socio-economic and demographic correlates of fertility: Evidence from tribals of South-East Rajasthan. National Geographical Journal of India, 58 (2), 1-12.
Sivasankaran, A. (2014). Work and women’s marriage, fertility and empowerment: Evidence from textile mill employment in India, Job market paper.Retrieved 20 January 2017 from, https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/asivasankaran/files/jobmarketpaper_anithasivasankaran.pdf.
Steele, F., Aminand, S. & Naved, R. T. (1998).The impact of an integrated micro-credit program on women’s empowerment and fertility behavior in rural Bangladesh. Policy Research Division Working Paper no 115, Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Stuart, B. (2010). Television and fertility. Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, 65, 67–82.
Stycos, J. M. (1965). Female employment and fertility in Lima, Peru. Milkbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 43(1), 42-54.
United Nations (2014). The world survey on the role of women in development 2014: Gender equality and sustainable development.New York: United Nations.
United Nations (2015). Sustainable development goals. United Nations. New York. Retrieved 10 December from, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/.
United Nations, (1961). Mysore population study, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Studies, no. 34.
United Nations, (1996). Report of the fourth World Conference on women, 4-15 September 1995, New York: United Nations.
United Nations Population Information Network (1995). Guidelines on women's empowerment. New York.
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2009). World Marriage Data 2008 (POP/DB/Marr/ Rev2008).
United Nations (2015). World fertility patterns 2015. Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
Verma, K. K. (1977). Culture, ecology and population: An anthropo-demographic study.New Delhi: National Publishing House.
Weller, R. H. (1977). Demographic correlates of women’s participation in economic activities. In Proceedings of the International Population Conference, 1977 held in Mexico, IUSSP.
Whelpton, P. K., Campbell, A. A., Patterson, J. E. (1966). Fertility and family planning in the United State.New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Williams, J. S. & Singh, B. K. (1976).The impact of mass media on fertility rates: An exploration.Journal of Applied Communication Research, 4(1), 19-24. Published online on 21 May 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909887609360222.
Woldemicael, G. (2009). Women’s autonomy and reproductive preferences in Eritrea. Journal of Biosocial Science, 41(2), 161–181.
- Abstract viewed - 225 times
- PDF downloaded - 103 times
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
© Hemant Patidar, 2018
Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar
How to Cite
Women’s Empowerment and Fertility Behaviour among the Tribals of Rajasthan, India
Vol 5 No 3 (2018): Space and Culture, India
Submitted: Dec 13, 2017
Published: Mar 25, 2018
Fertility has declined in India during the last few decades because of socio-economic development. Women’s empowerment has been identified as an important determinant for demographic change. Tribals in India have relatively high fertility because of their traditional socio-cultural practices and poor economic condition. This study aims to examine the role of women’s empowerment on fertility behaviour by utilising primary data collected from ten tribal dominated districts of Rajasthan. These tribal communities belong to the Bhils, the Meenas and the Saharias. Results reveal that women’s empowerment is negatively associated with fertility behaviour. Women’s education, employability, participation in decision-making, exposure to media and spousal communication bear significant impact on fertility behaviour. This study may have some implications for future studies and policy makers for regulating fertility.