Fertility has declined in India during the last few decades because of socio-economic development. Women’s empowerment has been identified as an important determinant for demographic change. Tribals in India have relatively high fertility because of their traditional socio-cultural practices and poor economic condition. This study aims to examine the role of women’s empowerment on fertility behaviour by utilising primary data collected from ten tribal dominated districts of Rajasthan. These tribal communities belong to the Bhils, the Meenas and the Saharias. Results reveal that women’s empowerment is negatively associated with fertility behaviour. Women’s education, employability, participation in decision-making, exposure to media and spousal communication bear significant impact on fertility behaviour. This study may have some implications for future studies and policy makers for regulating fertility.