Economic, Social and Demographic Impact of Burmese Invasion of Manipur

Main Article Content

Yaiphaba Ningthoujam

Abstract

Adversarial relationship best describes the history between the Kingdom of Manipur and Burma. As expected between neighbours, there had been frequent wars, alliance formation through intermarriages, trade ties, and cultural exchanges. The watershed in the bilateral relationships was the Burmese occupation during 1819-1826; a period described as the ‘Seven Years Devastation’. It was the last and the most destructive in the series of invasions that befalls the Kingdom of Manipur. Considered the darkest phase, the seven years left an indelible mark in the mindset of the Manipuris. The trail of destruction and devastation that the invading Burmese armies left in the psyche of the Manipuris are still retold in the popular folklore, ballads, and enacted in plays. It had left a penetrating impact on the social, economic, demographic, cultural, and even foreign relations of Manipur.


 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ningthoujam, Y. (2021). Economic, Social and Demographic Impact of Burmese Invasion of Manipur. Space and Culture, India, 9(1), 29-37. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v9i1.893
Section
Special Articles
Received 2020-05-27
Accepted 2021-06-24
Published 2021-06-24

References

Allen, B.C. (2010). Gazetteer of Naga Hills and Manipur. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. (Original Work Published 1905).
Aung, M. H. (1967). A history of Burma. New York & London: Columbia University Press.
Bahadur, M. (2014). Awa: Kate and Paona. Imphal: Mutua Museum.
Banerjee, A.C. (1946). The eastern frontier of British India (1784-1826). Calcutta: A. Mukherjee & Bros.
Baruah, S.L.(1983). The Burmese and the north east : From the middle of the 18th century to the treaty of Yandabo in 1826. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Vol . 44.(609-613).https://www.jstor.org/stable/44139912.
Birachandra, N. (1987). Socio religious life of the Meiteis in the 18th century A.D.(Unpublished Ph. D. thesis). Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal.
Birachandra, N. (2009). Seven years’ devastation (1819-26). Imphal: P.S. Publications.
Brown, R. (2001). Statistical account of Manipur. New Delhi: Mittal Publication. (Original Work Published 1874).
Chaki- Sircar, M. (1984). Feminism in a traditional society: Women of the Manipuri valley. Delhi: Shakti Books.
Crawfurd, J. (1834). Journal of an embassy from the governor general of India to the court of Ava. Second Edition, Vol. 1. Dublin: Henry Colburn.
Dun, E.W. (1981). Gazetteer of Manipur. Delhi: Vivek Publishing Company. (Original Work Published 1886).
Forchhammer, E. (2015). Inscriptions of Pagan, Pinya and Ava. Rangoon: Andesite Press. (Original Work Published 1899).
Goshwami, H. (2018, February 21). Phases of Manipuri culture: A historical perspective. Imphal Times. Retrieved from https://www.imphaltimes.com/it-articles/item/10711-phases-of-manipur-culture-a-historical-perspective/amp.
Hall, D.G.E. (1981). A history of south east Asia (4th Ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan. (Original Work Published 1955).
Harvey, G.E. (2000). History of Burma. New Delhi: AES Reprint( Original Work Published 1925).
Hodson, T.C. (1981). The Meithies (2nd Repeat Ed.). Delhi: B.R. Publishing Corporation. (Original Work Published 1908).
Indramani, N. (2015).The socio-cultural and historical accounts of Manipur. Imphal:N.I. Publications.
Johnstone, J. (1896). My experiences in Manipur and the Naga hills. London: S. Low, Marston and Company Ltd.
Kabui, G. (2003) History of Manipur. Vol.1. Pre-colonial period. New Delhi: National Publishing House.
Kamei, G. (2015). A history of modern Manipur (1826- 2000). New Delhi: Akansha Publishing House.
Kazumasa, I. (2014). The foreign presence in Mandalay during the Konbaung period: A review of the urban area. The Journal of Sophia Asia Studies, 32,113-128.
McCulloch, W. (1980). Valley of Manipur. Delhi: Gyan Publications (Original Work Published 1859).
Myint, U. T. (2001). The making of modern Burma. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Nimai, R.K. (2020, January 8). A view on two wars fought in Manipur. Imphal Free Press. Retrieved from https://ifp.co.in/a-view-on-two-wars-fought-in-manipur/.
Parratt, S.N.(1989). Garib Niwaz : Wars and religious policy in 18th Century Manipur. Internationales Asienforum, 20 (3-4), 295-302.
Parratt, S.N.A. (2009). The court chronicle of the kings of Manipur: The chietharol kumpapa, Vol. 2, 1764-1843 CE. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press.
Parratt, S.N.A. (2019). The court chronicle of the kings of Manipur: The chietharol kumpapa, Vol.1, 33-1763. Imphal: Jain Book Shop Publication.
Pemberton, R.B. (2015). The eastern frontier of India. New Delhi: Mittal Publications (Original Work Published 1835).
Ranjana, M. (2015).Meitei women in the 19th century Manipuri society. In Sudhir, H., S. B. Singh & N. J. Singh (Eds.), Proceedings of The Manipuri Historical Society, 8th Session (117-128). Imphal: Rinda Publications.
Roy, J. (1973). History of Manipur. Imphal: (n. p.)
Sanajoaba, N. (2005). Ed. Manipur: Past and present. Vol.4. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.
Singh, M. J. (1963). Bejoy punchalee. Imphal(n .p.)
Singh, M.K. (2005). Status of Meiteis in Myanmar. In Sanajoaba N. (Ed.), Manipur: Past and present. Vol.4 (95-105). New Delhi:Mittal Publications.
Singh, N. T. (1972). Manipur: A study. Imphal: Raj Stores.
Singh, R.K. J. (1965). A short history of Manipur. Imphal: O.K. Store.
Spearman, H.R. (1880). The British Burma gazetteer. Vol. 1. Rangoon: Government Press.
Tejbanta, S. (2015). Politics of religion: A study from Bhagyachandra to Chandracriti. In Sudhir, H., S. B. Singh & N. J. Singh (Eds.), Proceedings of The Manipuri Historical Society, 8th Session (174-185). Imphal:Rinda Publications.
Than, T. (1988). The royal orders of Burma, A.D. 1598-1885. Retrieved from https:/repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp>dspace>bitstream.
Wilson, H. H. (1827). Ed., Documents illustrative of the Burmese war. Calcutta: Government Gazette Press by G.H. Huttmann.
Yule, H. (1858). Narrative of the mission sent by the governor- general of India to the court of Ava in 1855. London: Smith, Elder & Co.