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The article is dedicated to the demographic trends and the demographic dividend in the Russian Federation and the Kyrgyz Republic for the years of 1950-2015. Based on the UN database, there has been a gradual decrease in the total birth rate during 65 years in the Russian Federation and the Kyrgyz Republic. However, in the Kyrgyz Republic, this number was almost twice its level in the Russian Federation. The overall demographic burden was significantly lower in the Russian Federation from 1960 to 2005, and its decrease in both countries was due to the decrease in the demographic burden of children. Since 1960, and during the following decades, the demographic burden of elderly people in the Russian Federation began to increase rapidly, but in the Kyrgyz Republic, the decrease in demography was due to changes in the age structure of the population. In the result of these trends, the share of the working-age population in both countries has steadily increased, creating favourable conditions for the demographic dividend. Russia and Kyrgyzstan, due to the high share of the working-age population over the past 55 years, have received a demographic dividend. Labour migration from Kyrgyzstan to Russia makes a significant contribution to the demographic dividend of both countries.
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