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The Co-Evolution of India’s Policy on Science, Technology, and Innovation with University Education: The Need for Innovation in Higher Educational Institutions


Innovation-focused education and research have been identified as critical contributors to enhancing the innovative behaviour of individuals, organisations, and economies. Therefore, Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) embrace innovations to transform teaching, research, and knowledge transfer that impact economic and social objectives. The research objective of this study is to shed light on India’s needs for its higher education and innovation policies to develop faster growth and provide lessons on what it is doing right. For this, we study the gaps in the two policies: Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy (STIP) and National Educational Policies (NEP) applicable to HEIs. This study uses content analysis of the policies, with two experts’ opinions on the evolution of the policies. It finds that the Indian government has consciously striven to adopt new developments, urgently needing to improve infrastructural facilities for knowledge-driven innovation. Yet, fostering private industry’s role in innovation has not been adequate. The study concluded that policymakers need to collaborate with all the players for focused education and research, resulting in responsible innovation.


Innovation, Higher Education, Science Technology and Innovation Policy, National Education Policy, Research & Development, Higher Education Institutions, India



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