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Organic Farming in India: Evolution, Current Status and Policy Perspectives


The performance of the agricultural sector is key for the development of the economy, especially for developing economies. It helps the economy in various ways, such as increased income for farmers, employment in rural areas, and, most importantly, food security. With the growing demand for food, farmers use extensive fertilisers and pesticides to increase productivity. This irrational use of fertilisers reduces soil fertility, pollutes rivers, kills plants and animals, and is linked to many human diseases. Thus, conventional farming raises many concerns related to the environment as well as human health. The emergence of organic farming is because of certain limitations of conventional farming. In our country, organic farming practices are taking a new shape. India has 1.59 million organic producers with 2.7 million hectares of agricultural land under organic agriculture. The current paper aims to describe the evolution and status of organic agriculture in India. It also seeks to probe the impact of organic agriculture on various aspects of farming and economy. The paper also aims to identify the constraints in the growth of organic agriculture. Further, based on the findings, the paper proposes new development models for the sustainable growth of the agriculture sector in India. Through this, a perspective is provided on the current state and policy alternatives with innovative organic farming models for the welfare of farmers and people at large.


Organic Farming, Farmers, Agriculture, Production, Environment, India



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