Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

In Search of Sustainable Alternatives: A Comparative Study of Gobindabhog and HYV Rice Cultivation in West Bengal: A Case Study of the State’s Rice Bowl


Rice plays a vital role in the socio-economic aspects of Purba Bardhaman district, West Bengal - the 'Rice Bowl’ of the State. The glorious past of this district is associated with several indigenous rice varieties and also the direct relation with the livelihood and social status of the farmers. However, after the Green Revolution in the 1960s, High Yielding Varieties (HYV) flourished rapidly at the cost of indigenous rice varieties. Later on, such aggression resulted in less return gradually and the need for another alteration is expected in the advent of the second Green Revolution for better prospects and profitable farming practices. This study tries to analyse the socio-economic viability and associated risk hazards of both Gobindabhog indigenous and HYV’s rice cultivation. In doing so, the study attempts to search for the alternative one in the contemporary crisis of agriculture taking into account the farmers' socio-economic issues of the study area. Respondents' interviews with a cross-sectional; multi-layered; semi-structured questionnaire and secondary data were used with both thematic narratives and quantitative techniques using IBM SPSS version 20.0 software to reflect the comparison with ground truth. It might be suggested that the cultivation and spreading of indigenous varieties accompanied with HYV’s would be a future solution for both farmers and environmental concerns.


Rice Bowl, Purba Bardhaman District, The Green Revolution, Gobindabhog Rice, HYV, Profitable Farming, Socio-Economic Viability, West Bengal, India



  1. Agriculture Report (2011). Purba Bhardhaman: National Informatics Centre. Purba Bhardhaman. https;//
  2. Atkinson, G., Brathen, N., Groom, B., & Mourato, S. (2018). Cost-Benefit Analysis and The Enviroment-Further Development and Policy Use. OECD. DOI:
  3. Balachandran, P., Francies, R., & Jigi, J. (2006). Potential and Prospects of Medicinal and Rice. Journal Rice Research, 1(1), 19-20. https://doi/full/10.1080/109429109.3034833
  4. Bandopadhyay, A. (2014). Dhan Chas. Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya.
  5. Banerjee, A. K. (1972). West Bengal District Gazetteer. West Bengal District Gazetteers Publishers.
  6. Banerjee, H., Pal, S., & Senapati, B. (2011). Hybird Rice in West Bengal. Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya.
  7. Basu, D. (2014). Matir SasthoRakhai JoiboKrishi. Naida: Directorate of Research, Bhidhan Chandra Krishi Vishavidayalaya.
  8. Basu, M. (2017). Farmers in West Bengal are Going Back to Indigenous Rice Varieties, with a little encouragement. Down To Earth, 31.
  9. Blakeney, M., Krishnankutty, J., Raju, K. R,. & Siddique, H. M. K. (2020). Agricultural Innovation and Protection of Traditional Rice Varieties: Kerala a Case Study. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 199-216. DOI:
  10. Bokaria, K. (2015). Important of System of Rice Intensification Method for Mitigation of Arsenic in Rice. International Journal of Advances Research, 3(5), 1398-1409.
  11. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistic. (2018) Purba Bardhaman.
  12. Census of India (2011). https;//
  13. Das, P. C. (2003). Adunic Podhotite Fosol Chas. Dey's Publishing.
  14. Das, T., & Das, A. (2014). Inventory of the Traditional Rice Varieties in Farming System of Southern Assam, A case Study. Indian of Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 13(1), 157-163.
  15. Deka, S. D., Sharmah, S., & Sarmah, B. (2014). Conservation and Utilisation of Indigenous Rice Varieties for a Sustainable Livelihood Security. International Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 4(4), 291-296.
  16. Fernandes, J. N., Hemswork, P. H., Coleman, G. J, & Tilllbrook, A. J. (2021). Cost and Benefit of Improving Farm Animal Welfare. Journal Agriculture, 11(2), 104. 11020104. DOI:
  17. Ghorai, D., Kundu, S., Sarkar, S., & Rahman, F. (2014). Location Specific Changes in SRI: Towards Augmented Paddy Productivity and Dissemination. CRIJAF (ICAR).
  18. Ghosh, M. (2015). 'Gobinda bhog Dhan' Utpadon, Prokriakoron, Biponon. Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya.
  19. Ghose, M. (2018). 'Radhunigopal Dhan' Utpadon, Prokriakoron, Biponon. Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidayalaya.
  20. Ghose, M., Mondal, G., & Karfoma, J. (2015). 'Tulaipanji' - Utpadon, Prokriakoron, Biponon. Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidayalaya.
  21. Ghosh, S. D., & Chottopadhaya, K. (2017). A Study on Indigenous Rice Varieties in Sundarban Delta and their Role in Ensuring Local Food Security in the Face of Climate Change Threats. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. Agro Economic Research Centre, Viswabharati Santiniketan, West Bengal.
  22. Hunter, W. (1877). A Statistical Account of Bengal, District of Burdwan, Bankura and Birbhum. 4.
  23. Huynh, C., Pham, T., Le, T., Nguyon, T., Nguyen, L., & Tran, P. (2020). Understanding Indigenous Farming System in Response to Climate Change: An investing into soil erosion in the mountainous regions of Central Vietnam. Applied Science, 10(15), 1-24. htts:// DOI:
  24. Ibtissem, T., Jankerer, Talwana, H., Bashaasha, B., & Mukiibi, J.M. (2015). Agriculture Risk Assessment Study. Uganda Platform for Agriculture Risk Management (PARM). pdf & usg
  25. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Kolkata.
  26. Investment Centre Division (2011). Social Analysis for Agriculture and Rural Investment Project - Practioner's Guide. FAO. UN.
  27. Joshi, C. P., & Singh, B. B. (2006). Indigenous Agriculture Knowledge in Kumaon Hills of Uttaranchal. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5(1), 19-24. http://141394711/ScienceCommunication/ResearchJournal/rejour/ijtk/ijtk2kb/ijtkjan06.asp#p-19
  28. Karforma, J. (2021). Zero Tillage Podhotir Onek Itibachok Dik Royeche. Uttorer Saradin, Uttarbanga, West Bengal, 12(85), 8
  29. Khairallah, I. (2020). Indigenous Knowledge Cultivation of Local Rice Varieties "Siam Mutiara" and "Sima Saba" at Tidal Swampland, 20(7). DOI:
  30. Kumar, I., & Sahu, L. K. (2018). Indigenous Technical Knowledge Used in Paddy Cultivation in Rajnandgaon District, Chhattisgarh'. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(1), 1373-1374.
  31. Lalitha, N., & Vinayam, S. (2020). Time to Revive Traditional Rice Varieties. The Hindu Business Line.
  32. 30934608.ece.
  33. Livelihood Zones Analys is In W.B. (2016). A Scenario AWM Interventions, Rajarhat Prasar 1, Kolkata in Collaboration With FAO. UNO, Rome (Italy).
  34. Mohanty, R., Tripathy, B., & Panda, T. (2011). Status, Distribution and Conservation of Some Threatened Indigenous Rice Varieties Cultivated in Odisha, India. International Journal of Conservation Science, 12(4), 269-274.
  35. Mukharjee, N. G. (1901). Handbook of Indian Agriculture (e-book). Thacker, Spink and Co.
  36. Nagarajan , S. (2018). Indigenous Rice Varieties Make A Comeback. Thiruvananthpuram: The Hindu.
  37. National Consortium of S.R.I. (2014). NSS.
  38. National Informatics Centre, Purba Bardhaman. (2011).
  39. National Informatics Centre, Purba Bhardhaman. (2015).
  40. Niyogi, D. G. (2019). Farmers Occurs India Revives Folk Rice Varieties. Traditional Rice Varieties, Kondagaon, Chhattisgarh. 3.jpg
  41. Nouman, M., Siddique, F. M., Asim, M., & Hussain, Z. (2013). Impacts of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Farms on Access to Agricultural Credit. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 29(3), 469-476.
  42. Pal, A. (2015). Organic, Indigenous Rice Back in Bengal, Owing to Taste, Cost and Climate Change. Food and Agriculture.
  43. Pal, A. (2016). Folk Rice Diversity in West Bengal: Conserving this Neglected Treasure. News Reach, July-August 2016.
  44. Phapumma, A., Monkham, T., Chankaew, S., Kaewpradit, W., Harakotr, P. T., & Sanitchon, J. (2020). Characterisation of Indigenous Upland Rice Varieties for High Yield Potential and Grain Quality Characters Under Rainfed Conditions in Thailand. Annals of Agricultural Science, 65(2), 179-187. DOI:
  45. Radhakrishnan, S. (2019). Reviving Indigenous Seeds: A Slient Revolution in India's Rice Growing States. Environmental Ecology.
  46. Eliazer Nelson, A. L., Ravichandran, K., & Antony, U. (2019). The Impact of the Green Revolution on Indigenous Crops of India. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 6(8). DOI:
  47. Rahman, S. M. A., Sarkar, S., Ziauddin, G., Garai, S., & Kundu, S. S. (2019). Technological Intervention in Some Selected Crops /enterprice. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Burdwan. CRIJAF/KVK/2019/02
  48. Rizwana & Lyaqat. (2011). Tradition Knowledge Used in Paddy Cultivation in Raipur District, Chhattisgarh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10(2), 384-385.
  49. Roy, S. (2019). Demand Turns Premium "Gobindobhog" Rice Pricey. The Hindu. 29349380
  50. Schimmelpfennig, D. (2018). Crop Production Costs, Profits, and Ecosystem Stewardship With Precision Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 50(1), 81-103. doi: 10.1017/aae.2017.23 DOI:
  51. Singh, S., Singh, R. K., & Singh, R. (2013). Enhancing Rice and Wheat Production by Bridging Yield Gap in Western Uttar Pradesh of India. Journal of Wheat Research, 5(2), 43-47.
  52. Ullah, M. J., Islam, M. A., Rashid, M. H., Rahman, M. M., Siddique, M. A., Akbar, M. A., Razzaque, M. A., Faruque, M., Mollah, H., (2016). Evolution of Indigenous and High Yielding Rice Varieties for Growing in Tidal Floodplain Ecosystem of Southern Bangladesh. Agriculture Forestry & Fisheries, 5(6), 239-242. Doi-10.11648/J.AFF.20160.506.14 DOI:
  53. Verma, J. (2019). Farmers Turn Saviours Traditional Rice Varieties. Wayanad, Kerala: Community Agro-Biodiversity Centre (CABC) of MS Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRFs).


Download data is not yet available.