Main Article Content
Pilgrimage is a spiritual journey during which pilgrims have a religious experience and feel connected to the faith's spiritual legacy. The sacred sites are the spiritual home for pilgrims which they have read and heard about but never visited or experienced before. With little attention paid to the Islamic pilgrimage, especially by geographers, this review paper is an attempt to provide an overview of the subject matter and seek to put forward possible future research directions. This paper provides a systematic description of pilgrimage in Islam by reviewing the literature on the subject, analysing the definitions, characteristics, processes, classification and authorisation of pilgrimage in general followed by an overview of Islamic pilgrimage, that is, Ziyarat by defining key terms, discussing the typology and exploring the neglected dimensions in Islamic pilgrimage studies. The study has brought the relics and saints venerated in the Muslim world into focus, which are the essential causes for the origin and continuation of the Ziyarat tradition. It also points out the different occasions and reasons for performing popular pilgrimage in Islam. And lastly, it discusses the future research dimensions of Islamic pilgrimage.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Asher, C. B. (2009). The Sufi Shrines of Shahul Hamid in India and Southeast Asia. Artibus Asiae, 69(2), 247-258. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20801622
Barber, R. (1991). Pilgrimages. Boydell & Brewer Ltd.
Beattie, H. (1983). Tombs and footprints: Islamic shrines and pilgrimages in modern Iran and Afghanistan. MPhil thesis. SOAS University of London.
Berriane, J. (2015). Pilgrimage, spiritual tourism and the shaping of transnational ‘Imagined Communities’: the case of the Tidjani Ziyara to Fez. The international journal of religious tourism and pilgrimage, 3(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.21427/D7GX30
Bhardwaj, S. M. (1983). Hindu places of pilgrimage in India: A study in cultural geography. University of California Press, Ltd.
Bhardwaj, S. M. (1998). Non-hajj pilgrimage in Islam: A neglected dimension of religious circulation. Journal of Cultural Geography, 17(2), 69-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/08873639809478321
Boissevain, K. (2016). Studying religious mobility: pilgrimage, shrine visits and religious tourism from the Maghreb to the Middle East. In D. Albera. J. Eade (Eds.), New pathways in pilgrimage studies (pp. 101-117). Routledge.
Collins-Kreiner, N. (2010). The geography of pilgrimage and tourism: Transformations and implications for applied geography. Applied geography, 30(1), 153-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2009.02.001
Courtney, M. (2015). A review of the literature exploring the occupation of contemporary pilgrimage. Journal of Occupational Science, 22(2), 170-182. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2013.764816
Dauda Goni, M., Hasan, H., Naing, N. N., Wan-Arfah, N., Zeiny Deris, Z., Nor Arifin, W., & Abubakar Baaba, A. (2019). Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards prevention of respiratory tract infections among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims from Malaysia in 2018. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(22), 4569. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224569
Davidson, L. K. & Gitlitz, D. M. (2002). Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland: an encyclopedia. Abc-clio.
Desai, M. (2003). Mosques, temples, and orientalists: Hegemonic imaginations in Banaras. Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, 23-37. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41758028
Di Giovine, M. A. (2019). Geographies of religion and spirituality: Pilgrimage beyond the ‘officially’sacred. Tourism Geographies, 21(3), 361-383. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2019.1625072
Digance, J. (2003). Pilgrimage at contested sites. Annals of tourism research, 30(1), 143-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00028-2
Digance, J. (2006). Religious and secular pilgrimage: Journeys redolent with meaning. In Tourism, religion and spiritual journeys (pp. 52-64). Routledge.
Doud, B. T. (2016). The Sunni Shia Split: Perplexing and deadly international intercultural conflict. Global Security Studies, 7(2). http://www.globalsecuritystudies.com/Doud%20Sunni%20Shia.pdf
Ebadi, M. (2015). Forms of pilgrimage at the shrine of Khāled Nabi, Northeastern Iran. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage., 3(1), 66-78. https://doi.org/10.21427/D72M7P
Ebadi, M. (2016). Shrine pilgrimage (Ziyārat) in Turco-Iranian cultural regions, International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 4(1), 70-77. https://doi.org/10.21427/D74M8P
Elaskary, M., & Yun, E. K. (2017). Death, resurrection, and shrine visitations: An Islamic perspective. Religions, 8(3), 2-11. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8030034
Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Umayyad dynasty.https://www.britannica.com/topic/Umayyad-dynasty-Islamic-history
Ferg, E. (2008). Islamic saint veneration: Iran. University of Denver.
Goldziher, I. (1971). Muslim studies, Translated by CR Barber and SM Stern. Gerge Allen & Unwin Ltd.
Husein, U. M. (2018). A phenomenological study of Arbaeen foot pilgrimage in Iraq. Tourism Management Perspectives, 26, 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2017.11.015
Jackowski, A. (1987). Geography of pilgrimage in Poland. In Trends in the Geography of Pilgrimages. Homage to David E. Sopher. The National Geographic Journal of India, 33(4), 422-429.
Kessler, K. (2015). Conceptualizing Mosque tourism: A central feature of Islamic and Religious Tourism. The international journal of religious tourism and pilgrimage, 3(2), 11-32. https://doi.org/10.21427/D7RB0G
Kinell, N. (2017). Christianity in Banaras: A mapping of Christian congregations and case study on two Catholic churches (Dissertation). 44. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-47826
Komaki, S. (2013). The cult of Islamic holy relics as a contact zone: A case study of a Muslim Shrine in North India. Studies of regional policy, 15(3), 27-39. https://tinyurl.com/2ff3sthb
Meri, J. W. (2002). The cult of saints among Muslims and Jews in medieval Syria. OUP Oxford.
Meri, Y. (2015). The cult of saints and Pilgrimage. In A. J. Silverstein, & G. G. Stroums (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Abrahamic Religions (pp. 499-517). 0.1093/oxfordhb/9780199697762.013.19
Morinis, A. (1992). Sacred journeys: The anthropology of pilgrimage. In Contributions to the Study of Anthropology (Vols. NS15-2, pp. 1-28). Greenwood Publishing Group.
Moufahim, M., & Lichrou, M. (2019). Pilgrimage, consumption and rituals: Spiritual authenticity in a Shia Muslim pilgrimage. Tourism Management, 70, 322-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.08.023
Mulder, S. (2014). Shrines in the Central Islamic Lands. In The Cambridge History of World Religious Architecture (p. 48). Cambridge University Press.
Nolan, M. L. (1987). Christian pilgrimage shrines in western Europe and India: A preliminary comparison. National Geographical Journal of India, 33(4), 370-378.
Ortis, D. (2017). From potent dead to potent places? Reflections on Muslim saint shrines in South Asia. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 18(5), 483-498. https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2017.1373845
Papas, A. (2013). Pilgrimages to Muslim shrines in western China. Living shrines of Uyghur China: Photographs by Lisa Ross. Monacelli Press.
Park, C. (2004). Religion and geography. In J. Hinnells (Ed.), Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion (pp. 414-445). Routledge.
Puspitasari, P., Djunaedi, S. A., & Putra, H. S. (2012). Ritual and space structure: Pilgrimage and space use in historical urban kampung context of Luar Batang (Jakarta, Indonesia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 350-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.039
Rahmatullah (2014). Muslim shrines and Multi-Religious visitations as a symbol of peaceful coexistence: A study of three prominent Sufi shrines, Islam and Muslim Societies. A Social Science Journal, 7(2), 51-61. https://www.muslimsocieties.org/Vol7_2/Muslim_Shrines_and_Multi_Religious_Visitations.pdf
Rinschede, G. (1986). The pilgrimage town of Lourdes. Journal of Cultural Geography, 7(1), 21-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/08873638609478518
Roof, W. C., & Juergensmeyer, M. (2012). Encyclopedia of global religion. Sage Publications.
Rowley, G. (1989). The centrality of Islam: Space, form and process. GeoJournal, 18(4), 351-359. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00772689
Saabiq, S. (2004). Jurisprudence of Sunnah. International Company for Printing.
Scott, J. S. (2012). Representing Sacred Space: Pilgrimage and Literature. In T. Coomans, H. De Dijn, J. De Maeyer, R. Heynickx, B. Verschaffel (Eds.), Loci Sacri: Understanding Sacred Places (pp. 138-167). https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt9qdxq6
Scriven, R. (2014). Geographies of pilgrimage: Meaningful movements and embodied mobilities. Geography Compass, 8(4), 249-261. https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12124
Shair, I., & Karan, P.P. (1979). Geography of the Islamic pilgrimage. GeoJournal, 3(6), 599-608. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00186060
Shinde, K. (2007). Pilgrimage and the environment: challenges in a pilgrimage centre. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(4), 343-365. https://doi.org/10.2167/cit259.0
Singh, R. P.B. (2011). Holy places and pilgrimages in India: Emerging trends & bibliography. In R. P. Singh (Ed.), Holy places and pilgrimages: Essays on India (pp. 7-56). Shubhi Publications.
Singh, R. P.B. (2013). Hindu tradition of pilgrimage: Sacred space & system. Dev Publishers & Distributors.
Snyder, M. (2010). Where Delhi is still quite far: Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya and the making of Nizamuddin Basti. Columbia Undergraduate Journal of South Asian Studies, 1-29. http://www.kanzuliman.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/cut-.pdf
Sopher, D. E. (1968). Pilgrim circulation in Gujarat. Geographical Review, 58(3), 392-425. https://www.jstor.org/stable/212564
Stoddard, R. (1994). Major Pilgrimage Places of the World. Geography Faculty Publications, 3, 17-36.
Stoddard, R. (1997). Defining and classifying pilgrimages. In R. H. Stoddard, & A. Morinis (Eds.), Sacred Places, Sacred Spaces: The Geography of Pilgrimages (Vol. 34, pp. 41-60). Department of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University.
Sykes, J. B. (1982). The concise Oxford dictionary of current English. Based on the Oxford English dictionary and its supplements. Oxford University Press.
The Quran (n.d.). Talal Itani- English Translation of The Quran. https://m.clearquran.com/downloads/quran-english-translation-clearquran-edition-allah.pdf
Turner, V. (1973). The center out there: Pilgrim’s goal. History of Religions, 12(3), 191-230. https://doi.org/10.1086/462677
Woodward, M., Umar, M., Rohmaniyah, I., & Yahya, M. (2013). Salafi violence and Sufi tolerance? Rethinking conventional wisdom. Perspectives on Terrorism, 7(6), 58-78. http://www.jstor.org/stable/26297065