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The conservation history of Kaziranga National Park has traversed many a path since it was first recognised as a ‘game sanctuary’ in 1916. The unique aesthetics and richness of its biodiversity, severely afflicted by natural and anthropogenic interventions now and then, has necessitated conservation of this wildlife reserve. An outcome of the conservation process pertains to disruptions in livelihood of the local communities, that have for generations, used the park’s natural resources and therefore, had become a part of its natural evolution. Hundreds of people have lost their livelihoods and violent confrontations have become a typical scene, with the communities being utterly left out of the conservation process. In this light, the present essay envisages discussing the centrality of community participation in the conservation of Kaziranga National Park vis-à-vis a conjugation of the conservation process and livelihood aspirations of the local people.
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