The purpose of the study is to examine the ethnolinguistic distribution of anthroponymic models in the multinational Republic of Bashkortostan. The authors consider the linguistic features of proper names taking into account the system capabilities of the analysed languages in the areas of language and cultural interaction. Six thousand anthroponymic units of living names of four nationalities of the region under study (Russians, Bashkirs, Germans and Latvians) were analysed. Ethno-linguistic affiliation in the anthroponymic formula of each nationality is revealed through a comprehensive analysis of proper names. Ethnically marked proper names within the framework of the corresponding system of a given language are characterised by increased distinctive ability in various communicative situations. Results show that there is no robust and direct connection between the ethnic characteristics of the first name and the nominator’s ethnic identity. With that, the name as an information source in the study of human identity allows the researchers to draw certain conclusions, as the name is the result of the choice made to reach a certain goal. It enables the actual means used to be correlated with a variety of other possible means, which makes it possible to compare socially important knowledge, shared by everyone, with individual aspects of the general. The results of this research can be useful in the practice of naming children born in exogamous marriages as well as in describing the onomastic situation in countries with a large influx of migrants.