Affidavit by Home Ministry available at http://www.lawyerscollective.org/files/MHA%20Affidavit.pdf
Akkai Padmashali v. UoI, WP(C) No.572/2016. Available at https://clpr.org.in/dr-akkai-padmashali-ors-vs-union-of-india/(accessed on August, 2016)
Asal, Victor Udi Sommer and Paul G. Harwood. (2012) Original Sin: A Cross-National Study of the Legality of Homosexual Acts, Comparative Political Studies, 3(46), pp. 320-351.
Bandopadhyay, Aditya. (2002). Where saving lives is a crime: The Lucknow Story!!. In Bina Fernandes (ed.), Humjinsi: A Resource Book on Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Rights in India, India Centre for Human Rights and Law, Mumbai, pp.104-108
Banning homosexuality fosters hate and homophobia says UN Report (2016, February 18). Available at ttps://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/18/banning-homosexuality-fosters-hate-and-homophobia-says-un-report (accessed on May 14, 2016)
Bhattacharyya, Rituparna (2018). What gender is, what gender does, Gender, Place & Culture, 25(3), 467-469, DOI: 10.1080/0966369X.2017.1338432.
Carroll, A. and L.R., Mendos. (2017). State Sponsored Homophobia 2017: A World Survey Of Sexual Orientation Laws: Criminalisation, Protection And Recognition, Geneva: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Inter-Sex Association.
Chayanika Shah (September 8, 2018) None of us are free till all of us are free: Why the 377 verdict is important for all Indians. Available at https://scroll.in/article/893578/none-of-us-are-free-till-all-of us-are-free-why-the-377-verdict-is-important-for-all-indians(accessed on September 2018)
d’Emilio, J. (1983). Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of A Homosexual Minority in the United States 1940-1970. London: University of Chicago Press. (ISBN: 9780226142678)
Engel, S. M. (2001). The Unfinished Revolution: Social Movements Theory and the Gay and Lesbian Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (ISBN: 9780511520761)
Eskridge, W. N. Jr. (2005). Body Politics: Lawrence v. Texas and the Constitution of Disgust and Contagion. Faculty Scholarship Series. Paper 1514, pp. 1012-1064.
Factsheet: Criminalization. Available at https://www.unfe.org/system/unfe-43-UN_Fact_Sheets_-_FINAL_-_Criminalization_(1).pdf (accessed on May 14, 2016)
The Global Divide on Homosexuality. June 4, 2013.Available at http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/04/the-global-divide-on-homosexuality/ (accessed on May 14, 2016)
Frank, D. J., S. A. Boutcher, and B. Camp. (2009). The Reform of Sodomy Laws from a world society perspective. In Scott Barclay, Mary Bernstein and Anna Maria Marshall (Eds.) Queer Mobilisations: LGBT Activists confront the law. New York: New York University Press.pp. 123-141
Great Britain. (1963). The Wolfenden Report: Report of the Committee on Homosexual Offenses and Prostitution. New York: Stein and Day.
Grover, A and Tripti Tandon .(September 7, 2018). ‘Freedom’s Second Coming’ The Indian Express, retrieved 7th September 2018 from https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/section-377-verdict-supreme-court-homosexuality-decriminalised-5343825/
Gupta, A. (2008). This Alien Legacy: The origins of ‘Sodomy Laws’ in British Colonialism. Human Rights Watch. Available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/494b5e4c2.html(accessed on April, 2015)
Han, Enze and Joseph O'Mahoney.(2014) British colonialism and the criminalization of homosexuality, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 27(2), pp. 268-288
Health Department affidavit, available at http://www.lawyerscollective.org/files/NACO%27s%20Affidavit.pdf
International Commission of Jurists (2011) Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Justice: A Comparative Law Casebook. Geneva: Atar Roto Presse SA, ISBN 978-92-9037-156-0
Kannabiran, Kalpana (2009). India: From ‘Perversion’ to Right to Life with Dignity. In Arvind Narrain and Marcus Eldridge, The Right That Dares To Speak Its Name, Bangalore: Alternative Law Forum. pp. 101-104
Karp, Paul (2017, 7 December). Marriage equality law passes Australia's parliament in landslide vote, The Guardian, UK Edition, retrieved 7 December 2017 from, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/dec/07/marriage-equality-law-passes-australias-parliament-in-landslide-vote
Kollman, Kelly and Matthew Waites (2009) The global politics of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender human rights: an introduction, Contemporary Politics, 15(1), pp. 1-17
LaViolette, Nicole and Sandra Whitworth. (1994) No Safe Haven: Sexuality as a Universal HumanRight and Gay and Lesbian Activism in International Politics, Millennium - Journal of International Studies, 23, pp. 563-588
Lennox, C., and M. Waites. (2013).Human rights, sexual orientation and gender identity in the commonwealth: from history and law to developing activism and transnational dialogues. In Lennox, C. and Waites, M. (eds.) Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the Commonwealth. Human Rights Consortium, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London, UK, pp. 1-59
Lister, R. (2002).Sexual Citizenship. In Engin F. Isin and Bryan S. Turner (eds.) Handbook of Citizenship Studies. London: Sage Publications. pp. 191-208
Mayur Suresh (September 6, 2018) This is the start of a new era for India’s LGBT communities. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/sep/06/india-lgbt-homophobia-section-377. (accessed on September 2018)
Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. (2009). Its about us all. In Arvind Narrain and Marcus Eldridge, The Right That Dares To Speak Its Name, Bangalore: Alternative Law Forum. pp. 115-117.
Narrain, A. (2004). Queer: Despised Sexuality, Law and Social Change. Bangalore: Books for Change.
Narrain, Arvind (September 10, 2018) Section 377: A Greater Transformation. Available at https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-greater-transformation/article24910086.ececcessed on September 2018)
National Legal Services Authority v. Union of India, Writ Petition (Civil) 400/2012 (Apr. 2014), available at http://supremecourtofindia.nic.in/outtoday/wc40012. pdf. (accessed on May, 2014)
Navtej Singh Johar & Ors. v. Union of India thr. Secretary Ministry of Law and Justice, W. P. (Crl.) No. 76 of 2016 Available at https://barandbench.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/NAVTEJ-SINGH-JOHAR-ORS-VS-UNION-OF-INDIA-WRIT-NO....................-OF-2016.pdf (accessed on October 1, 2018)
Navtej Singh Johar and Ors. v. Union of India W.P. (Crl.) 76/2016. Available at http://orinam.net/377/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Johar-UoI-2016.pdf. (accessed on August, 2016)
Naz Foundation v. Government of NCT of Delhi (2009) 160 D.L.T. 277 (Del) available at http://lobis.nic.in/dhc/APS/judgement/02-072009/APS02072009CW74552001.pdf.
Nussbaum, M (2010).From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law. New York: Oxford University Press (ISBN: 9781400825943)
O'Flaherty, Michael. (2015). The Yogyakarta Principles at Ten, Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 33(4) pp. 280-298.
Phelan, S. (2001). Sexual Strangers: Gays, Lesbians, and Dilemmas of Citizenship. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. (ISBN: 978-1566398282)
Burt, Robert A., (2004). Moral Offenses and Same Sex Relations: Revisiting The Hart-Devlin Debate. Faculty Scholarship Series. Paper 711. Available at http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/fss_papers/711 (accessed on October, 2016)
Rosenberg, Gerald N. (2018) Protecting Privilege: The Historic Role of the U.S. Supreme Court and the Great Progressive Misunderstanding, Available at https://judicialpowerproject.org.uk/gerald-n-rosenberg-protecting-privilege-the-historic-role-of-the-u-s-supreme-court-and-the-great-progressive-misunderstanding/(accessed on October 29, 2018)
Rubin, Gayle (1984). Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality. InCarole S. Vance (ed.), Pleasure & Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality, Boston and London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 267-319
Sanders, Douglas (2008). 377 - And The Unnatural Afterlife of British Colonialism. Paper presented at 5th Asian Law Institute Conference, National University of Singapore, May 22 and 23, 2008, pp. 1-39.
Sanders, Douglas. (2002)Human Rights And Sexual Orientation In International Law, International Journal Of Public Administration, 25(1), pp. 13-44
Sen, Amatya. (2006). A Statement in Support of the Open Letter by Vikram Seth and Others. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/international/open_letter.pdf (accessed on December 2016)
Sheikh, Danish and Siddharth Narrain. (2013) Struggling for Reason: Fundamental Rights and the Wrongs of the Supreme Court, Economic and Political Weekly, XLVIII(52), pp.14-16
Supreme Court Fails LGBT Community (2014, January 28). Available at www.lawyerscollective.org/updates/supreme-court-fails-lgbt-community.html (accessed on April 2014)
Supreme Court Order available at
Suresh Kumar Koushal v. Naz Foundation, (2014) 1 S.C.C. 1 (India) § 63, available at http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/imgs1.aspx?file name=41070.
Swiebel, Joke. (2009). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Human Rights: The Search For An International Strategy, Contemporary Politics. 15(1), pp. 19-35
Thoreson, Ryan Richard. (2009). Queering Human Rights: The Yogyakarta Principles and the Norm That Dare Not Speak Its Name, Journal of Human Rights, 8(4), pp. 323-339.
Voices Against 377 (2005) Rights For All: Ending Discrimination Against Queer Desire Under Section 377, Nirantar, New Delhi.
- Abstract viewed - 187 times
- PDF downloaded - 133 times
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
© Poonam Kakoti Borah, 2018
Poonam Kakoti Borah
Assistant Professor, Department of Women's Studies, Gauhati University, Guwahati, 781014
How to Cite
Engaging with the Law: Decriminalisation of Homosexuality and the Johar Judgement, 2018
Vol 6 No 3 (2008): Space and Culture, India
Submitted: Nov 15, 2018
Published: Nov 22, 2018
On September 6, 2018, the Supreme Court of India passed a historic judgment that decriminalised consensual same-sex acts among adults. The judgment which ‘read down’ S377 IPC was the culmination of demands that started from organisations that worked around HIV/AIDS prevention and eventually encouraged individual LGBTQ persons to challenge the law. Engagement with the law, therefore, this paper argues has been central to the emergence of the LGBTQ movement in India. Without undermining the significance of the grass root activism against S377, the paper also places stress on international human rights instruments and LGBTQ struggles against decriminalisation from different countries as factors that enabled the Johar Judgment. Finally, the paper raises the question on larger ramifications that the judgment can have and the necessity to look beyond decriminalisation.