A Model of the Civil Participation in the Context of the Specificities of the Political Space of the Russian Federation’s Regions
The structure of political opportunities was the study basis for determining the type of civil subjectivity based on the parameters of political competence (awareness) of the population living in the regions of Russia. The representatives of the expert groups from Belgorod region, Moscow region, the city of Moscow, Bryansk region, Vladimir region, Voronezh region, Lipetsk region, Orel region, Ivanovo region, Ryazan region, Yaroslavl region, Kostroma region, Tambov region, Tver region, Tula region took part in the research. This study has enabled the researchers to determine the preferred model of the political participation for each type of the region in the Russian Federation.Consequently, to suggest for recommendations, which will help to synchronise the structure of the political opportunities with the parameters of constructive political participation, which will lead to increasing the consolidation of the elite and mass groups and to deradicalisation of political interactions. It was proved, that it could be methodologically justified to view the category “political participation” in connection with the category “political activity”. On the basis of the main attributes of the activity, an operationalisation of the concept of “political participation” was conducted.
Taking into account that the regions of the Russian Federation even within the boundaries of one Federal District differ from each other in levels of social and economic development, “structure of political possibilities”, types of the elite and mass value systems, the forms, directivity and effectiveness of the local initiatives also vary considerably. The complex research enabled the authors to verify the validity of the conclusions. The research employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods.
The results of the expert survey demonstrated that the specificity of any form of political participation is determined by several factors: the political context, the social context, culture, a historical process and a level of political consciousness.