Bist, S.S. (2002). Conservation of elephants in NE India: Past, present and future. Newsletter of the Rhino Found for Nature in NE India Vol.4, pp. 7-10.
Choudhury, A. U. (1999). Status and conservation of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus in north-eastern India.Mammal Review, Vol. 29, Issue. 3, pp. 141–173.
Choudhury, A. (2004). Human-Elephant conflict in North-East India, Human Dimension of Wild Life, Vol. 9, pp. 261-270.
Chang’a, A., deSouza, N., Muya, J., Keyyu, J., Mwakatobe, A., Malugu, L., Ndossi, H.P., Konuche, J., Omondi, R., Mpinge, A.,Hahn, N., Palminteri, S., Olson, D. (2016). Scaling-up the use of chili fences for reducing human-elephant conflict across landscapes in Tanzania, Mongabay.com Open Access Journal-Tropical Conservation Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 921-930.
Chen, Y., Marino, J., Chen, Y., Tao, Q., Sullivan, C.D., Shi, K., Macdonald, D.W. (2016). Predicting Hotspots of Human-Elephant Conflict to Inform Mitigation Strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China, PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 9. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162035
Dabare, P., Suduwella, C., Sayakkara, A., Sandaruwan, D. (2015). Listening to the Giants: Using Elephant Infra-Sound to Solve the Human-Elephant Conflict, Conference paper, retrieved on 13 August from, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/da12/08623e530b43ab5b4de5a2deeddc8404bf24.pdf
Das, J.P., Lahkar, B.P. and Talukdar, B.K. (2012). Increasing Trend of Human Elephant Conflict in Golaghat District, Assam, India: Issues and Concerns, Gajah, Vol. 37, pp. 34-37.
Gubbi, S., Swaminath, M. H., Poornesha H. C., Bhat, R. and Raghunath, R. (2014). An elephantine challenge: human–elephant conflict distribution in the largest Asian elephant population, southern India, Biodivers Conserv, Vol. 23, pp. 633–647.
Goswami, V.R., Vasudev, D., Oli, M. K. (2014). The Importance of Conflict-Induced Mortality for Conservation Planning in Areas of Human–Elephant Co-Occurrence; Biological Conservation, vol. 176, pp 191-198.
Haore, R.E. (1999). Determinants of human-elephant conflict in a land-use mosaic, Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 36, pp.689-700
Hoare, R.E. (2000). African elephants and humans in conflict: the outlook for co-existence, Oryx, Vol. 34, pp. 34–38.
Hoare, R. E. (2001). A Decision Support System (DSS) for Managing Human–Elephant Conflict Situations in Africa. Nairobi, Kenya, IUCN African Elephant SpecialistGroup.
Jasmine, B., Ghose, D. and Das S.K. (2015). An attitude assessment of human-elephant conflict in a critical wildlife corridor within the Terai Arc Landscape, India, Journal of Threatened Taxa Vol .7, No. 2, pp. 6843–4852, http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3914.6843-52.
Mutinda,M., Chenge, G., Gakuya, F., Otiende, M., Omondi, P., Kasiki, S., Soriguer, R.C., Alasaad, S. (2014). Detusking Fence-Breaker Elephants as an Approach in Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091749.
Ngure, N. (1995). People-elephant conflict management in Tsavo, Kenya, Pachyderm Vol. 19 pp. 20-25.
Pant, G., Dhakal, M., Man, N., Pradhan, B., Leverington, F. and Hockings, M. (2016). Nature and extent of human–elephant Elephas maximus conflict in central Nepal, Oryx, Fauna and Flora International, Vol. 50, pp. 724-731.
Panja , U., Mistri, B. (2018). Human-Elephant Conflict in Sonamukhi C.D. Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, Space and Culture India, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 106-128. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v5i3.295
Perera, B. (2009). The human-elephant conflict: A review of current status and mitigation methods, Gajah, Vol.30, pp. 41-52.
Project Elephant Synchronized Census (2002). Asian Nature Conservation Foundation, http://www.asiannature.org/resources/statistics.html.
Ramkumar, R, Deb, S. and Rajanna, K.M. (2014). An automated system for remote elephant tracking to reduce human elephant conflict, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975–8887), pp. 24-27.
Saikia, A., Hazarika, R. and Sahariah, D. (2013). Land-use/land-cover change and fragmentation in the Nameri Tiger Reserve, India, Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography, 113:1, 1-10, DOI:10.1080/00167223.2013.782991.
Saikia, A., Hazarika, R., Saharia, D., Barman E. and Pio, S. (2006). No Living Space? Shrinking Habitat and Human Elephant Conflict in Assam, India, Final Project Report submitted to Rufford Small Grant Foundation.
Santiapillai, C. and Jackson, P. (1990). The Asian Elephant: An Action Plan for its Conservation, IUCN/SSC Action Plans, Gland.
Saxena, R, Nagpal, B.N., Singh, V.P., Srivastava, A., Dev, V., Sharma, M.C., Gupta, H.P., Tomar ,A. S., Sharma, S. Gupta, S.K. , (2014). Impact of deforestation on known malaria vectors in Sonitpur district of Assam, India, J Vector Borne Dis, Vol. 51, pp. 211–215.
Sitati , N.,Walpole, M., Smith, R. and Williams, N. (2003). Predicting spatial aspects of human-elephant conflict, Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol.40, pp. 667-677.
Srivastava, S., Singh, T. P., Singh, H., Kushwaha, S. P. S. and Roy, P. S. (2002). Assessment of Large-Scale Deforestation in Sonitpur District of Assam, Current Science, Vol. 82, pp. 1479–1484.
Stracey, P.D. (1963). Elephant Gold, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.
Sukumar, R. (1994). Elephant Days and Nights: Ten years with Indian elephant, Oxford University Press.
Talukdar, B.K. and Barman, R. (2003). Man-elephant conflict in Assam, India: Is there any solution?, Gajah, Vol. 22, pp. 50-56.
Thapa, B., and Dhakal, B., (2014). Human-Elephant Conflict: Household Impact Assessment in Bahundangi VDC, Nepal, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Wilson,S., Davies, T.E. Hazarika, N. Zimmermann, A.(2013). Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of human–elephant conflict in Assam, India, Oryx, pp. 1-10.
- Abstract viewed - 122 times
- PDF downloaded - 45 times
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
© Bhaskarjyoti Bhuyan, Bimal Kumar Kar, 2018
Research Scholar, Department of Geography Gauhati University, Guwahati – 781014, Assam (India)
Bimal Kumar Kar
Professor, Department of Geography Gauhati University, Guwahati – 781014, Assam (India)
How to Cite
The Pachyderm Dread: A Case Study of Human-Elephant Conflict in the Fringe Areas of Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
Vol 6 No 3 (2008): Space and Culture, India
Submitted: Oct 26, 2018
Published: Nov 22, 2018
The conflict between man and animal has been a problem since time immemorial. However, this problem has been increasing day by day with the advancement of technology like the construction of rail and road networks through the forest, establishing stone quarries near the forest, etc. and the increase of population. Human-animal conflict may occur with leopard, wild buffalos, tigers or even with rhinos. However, the most common encounter of human occurs with the largest mammal on earth, the pachyderm. Perhaps, a conflict with wild elephant kills more people than the others. The Asiatic elephant is gradually becoming an endangered species due to the fast decrease of its population. Human-elephant conflict is one of the major causes of decreasing elephant population.
Moreover, loss of animal habitat even in protected area poses a threat to their habitat and also becomes a cause for a decrease of the elephant population. Sonai-Rupai Wildlife sanctuary is one of the most suitable abodes of Asiatic elephant. However, rapid deforestation has compelled the elephants to enter into the human settlements, which leads to human-elephant conflict. This study attempts to understand the nature of the human-elephant conflict in the fringe areas of Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary and to explore the reasons behind such conflicts. It focuses mostly on those human-wildlife conflicts that result from a direct interaction among humans and wildlife.