The article deals with contemporary aspects of gender inequality on the example of indigenous small peoples of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, substantiate its main tendencies and develop directions for achieving gender equality in aboriginal society. Historical analysis of the origins of gender inequality among indigenous small peoples was conducted. In the course of the study, such methods as analysis and synthesis were used to generalise gender inequality; a historical method for understanding its origin; statistical methods for determining modern aspects of inequalities; the logical method was used for making conclusions. The natural and economic circumstances of regions of the Russian Arctic in the context of their influence on gender inequality were provided. The traditional social status and the role of women in the Russian Arctic was studied. The novelty of this study lies in the fact that the topic of gender inequality in the Russian Arctic was practically never discussed before. The survey showed that in indigenous people their mentality and their commitment to traditional nature management play an important role, which, according to the opinion of many aboriginal women, need more support at the state and regional levels, development of folk crafts, the creation of jobs and protection of this territory. The methods of achieving gender equality and improving the status of women of small indigenous peoples of the Russian Arctic were suggested. The conclusions stated what steps need to be taken to overcome gender inequality for women, what should be noted first and what is the key to achieving gender equality.