The article is dedicated to the interpretation of the dance theme in the work of famous French artist E. Degas (1834-1917) in connection with the development of the Paris Opera’s ballet theatre. The main objective of the study is to determine the main trends in the development of the French artistic culture of the late 19th century; in addition, it aims to study the time of E. Degas’s life and work, analyse his works on ballet themes, understand the artist’s method under the direct influence of the artistic system of the era, and the French classical dance; to identify the features of the interpretation of the ballet theme by E. Degas within the impressionistic trend opposing academicism and formulate its historical significance. His work introduces new forms of dialogue and communication into the sphere of the interaction of related arts. The author demonstrates that the artist’s works, despite the general theme, solve various creative tasks in the sphere of the impressionist image method. Also, they form the artistic consciousness that requires creativity necessary to develop search thinking in the image of the backstage life of dancers. Having studied works in museum collections, the author formulates the main dynamic characteristics of the created artistic images of the ballet and their unique identity. Determined that his drawings contain mathematics and pictorial ease at an equal rate. Muted, but expressive details develop the atmosphere of his paintings, where everything is rather simple, people are reserved, and their feelings are hidden from the eyes of others.