The article presents the consequences of the famine of 1921–1923, which affected many regions of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (KASSR) and caused mass epidemics, having an impact on children. This article analyses, the activities of party-state bodies and children saving social organisations. Based on archival sources, the authors bring forward the data on the number of homeless children, both in the Republic and the regions. The article aims to cover the critical reasons for homelessness amongst children. In doing so, it includes not only the socio-economic factors but also the Soviet state's policy, which led to the destruction of families, famine, high mortality, etc. The findings conclude that child homelessness is a result of the difficult socio-economic situation of the Republic, caused by war, famine and devastation.