Rural Settlement Expansion and its Effect on Food Security in Salanpur, West Bengal, India

  • Sumana Nandi Research Scholar
  • Tapas Mistri Assistant Professor,The University of Burdwan.
Keywords: Rural Settlement, Expansion, Salanpur, Food Security, PR Index, SI Index, FISI, West Bengal, India

Abstract

The settlement may be viewed as the manifestation of delicate human-nature interaction and cultural impression of humanity in the landscape system. With the progress of civilisation, the perception of use of natural resources and cultural development become ever-changing phenomena that causes the changes in the rural settlement all over the world. Salanpur C.D. Block of Paschim Bardhhaman district has registered an unusual settlement arrangement and spatio-temporal changes. Using satellite imageries and competent GIS technologies it is observed that an unplanned growth of rural settlement has developed in this part of West Bengal. This paper examines the spatio-temporal dynamics of the rural settlement over ten years (2008-2018), employing PR index, and SI index. In doing so, it, analyses the dynamic change of rural settlement at Gram Panchayat Level and its relation with overall land-use in the study area. This paper also envisages how the rural settlement expansion affects the various dimension of food security in Salanpur C. D. Block.

Along with this, the Spearman Rank-order Correlation Coefficient (rho=p) is also applied to comprehend the effect of the rural settlement expansion on regional food security. Growth of rural settlement towards productive agricultural land, unequal access to food, insufficiency in clean water, sanitation, and health care facility are also indicators of increasing threat to the long run food security of the people in the study area. The result shows a positive correlation between the rural settlement expansion index (SI) and food insecurity Index (FISI), it indicating that if the rural settlements expand, it would enhance the risk of food insecurity of the area. Development and growth are the buzz of the modern era, but the dark side of it is that destruction of agricultural lands would be ultimately responsible for food insecurity and uneven economic growth. The findings suggest that lopsided and unplanned growth of settlements is pose threats on food security of the study area. Therefore, sound planning is required to come out of these potential threats for the sake of the inhabitants.

Author Biography

Tapas Mistri, Assistant Professor,The University of Burdwan.

Assistant Professor,Department of Geography, The University of Burdwan.

References

Acharya, S. (2009). Food Security and Indian Agriculture: Policies, Production
Performance and Marketing Environment. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 22, 1-19.
Bar-Massada, A., Radeloff, V., & Stewart, S. (2014). Biotic and Abiotic Effects of Human Settlement in the Wild land-Urban Interface. Bioscience, 64(5), 429-437. doi:10.1093/biosci/biu039
Beil, K., Budds, M., Hicks, E., Kennedy, D., Rencher, K., & Iannarone, S. (2014). Land Use Planning for Secure Regional Food Systems. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255650805_Land_Use_and_Planning_for_Secure_Regional_Food_Systems.
Bezbaruah, M. (2013). A Discussion in Light of India’s National Food Security Act. Space and Culture, India, 1(2), 3-11. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v1i2.25
Bulkhairova S.Z., Gaukhar Amangeldievna Saimagambetova, G.A., Kizimbayeva, A. Kadyrova,G.M. and Abdiyeva,S.R. (2019). Situation of Food Security in Kazakhstan, Journal Space and Culture, India, 6(5), https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v6i5.469
Chattopadhyay, E. (2000). Bardhaman Jelar Itihas O Sanskriti/ Pratham Khanda. In: Radical Impression, pp.11-28
Chen, J. (2007). Rapid urbanisation in China: A real challenge to soil protection and food security. Catena, 69(1), 1-15. Doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2006.04.019
Datt, R. & Sundharam, K.P.M. (2002). Indian Economy, S. Chand & Company LTD. [ISBN: 81-219-2045-0], pp. 481-499
Dhinwa, P.S., Pathan, S.K., Sastry, S.V.C., Rao, M., Majumder, K.L., Chotani, M.L., Singh, J.P., & Sinha, R.L.P. (1992). Land use change analysis of Bharatpur district using GIS. The Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 20(4), 237-250. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03001921
District Census Handbook (2011). Census of India (2011), Series 20, Part XII-A, Directorate of Census Operations.
District Statistical Handbook (2008). Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Department of Planning Statistics and Programme Monitoring.
District Statistical Handbook Burdwan (2015). Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Department of Planning Statistics and Programme Monitoring.
FAO. (1996). Rome declaration on world food security and world food summit plan of action. Rome: FAO.
Gahukar, R.T. (2011). Food Security in India: The Challenge of Food Production and Distribution. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information. Taylor & Francis Group, 12, 270–286, ISSN: 1049-6505 print / 1540-4722 online, DOI: 10.1080/10496505.2011.588932
Ismail, M., & Mustaquim, M. (2013). Impact of Occupational Structure on Household
Food Security in Malda District (West Bengal). International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2(1), 76-88, ISSN: 2278 – 0211 (Online)
Jones, D. A., Ngure, M. F., Peltro, G., & Young, L.S. (2013). What Are We Assessing When We Measure Food Security? A Compendium and Review of Current Metrics Advances in Nutrition.4: 481–505, 2013; doi:10.3945/an.113.004119.
Karmakar, S. & Sarkar, D. (2014). Income Inequality, Poverty and Food Security in West Bengal, India. Journal of Social Science Studies. 1(1), ISSN 2329-9150, 31-43, doi:10.5296/jsss.v1i1.4170
Koner, K. (2018). Sanitation and Hygiene of Darjeeling City: A Crisis for Women and Adolescent Girls. Space and Culture, India, 5(3), 89-105. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v5i3.292
Kumar, A., Bantilan, M.C.S., Kumar, P., Kumar, S. & Jee, S. (2012). Food Security in India: Trends, Patterns and Determinants. Ind. Jn. of Agri. Econ. 67(3), 445-463.
Lambin, E., Turner, B.L., Geist, J.H., Agbola, B.S., Angelsen, A. et al., (2001). The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change, 11(4), 261-269. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780 (01)00007-3
Mandal, J. & Sanyal, S.(2019).Geospatial Analysis of Fluoride Concentration in Groundwater in Puruliya District, West Bengal, Journal Space and Culture, India, 6(5),71-86, https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v6i5.369
Matuschke, I. (2009). Rapid urbanisation and food security: Using food density maps to identify future food security hotspots. Contributed paper prepared for presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Beijing, China, August 16-22, 2009.
Mohanty, B. & Mishra, S. (2018).Statistics for Behavioural and Social Sciences, SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, ISBN 978-93-515-0181-7,708-712.
Ramachandram, P. (2018). Role of Health Services in Nutrition, Yojana: A Development Monthly, 62, ISSN 0971-8400
Report on the State of Food Insecurity in Rural India (2008).M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation & WFP, ISBN: 81-88355-06-2, Nagaraj and Company Private Limited.
Report on the State of Food Insecurity in Urban India (2010).M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation & WFP, ISBN: 978-81-88355-21-1, Nagaraj and Company Private Limited.
Ritchie, H., Reay, D., & Higgins, P. (2018). Sustainable Food Security in India- Domestic Production and Macronutrient Availability. PLOS ONE. 13(3), 1-17, e0193766. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193766
Sarkar, A. (2010). Analysis of Human Settlement Patterns Using RS and GIS in the Plains of West Bengal. e Traverse, 1(1), 1-16.
Sarkar, S. & Shekhar, C. (2017). Household Food Insecurity and Coping Strategies
in a Rural Community of West Bengal. Social Science Spectrum. 3(1), 16-26, ISSN 2454-2806
Siddique, G., & Mukherjee, N. (2017). Transformation of Agricultural Land for Urbanisation, Infrastructural Development and Question of Future Food Security: Cases from Parts of Hugli District, West Bengal. Space and Culture, India, 5(2), 47-68. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v5i2.269
Singh, K. (2014). Food Security in India: Performance and Concerns. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 19(7), 106-119, e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845
Szabo, S. (2016) Urbanisation and Food Insecurity Risks: Assessing the Role of Human Development, Oxford Development Studies, (44)1, 28-48, DOI:10.1080/13600818.2015.1067292
Tan, M., Li, X., Xie, H., & Lu, C. (2005). Urban land expansion and arable land loss in China—a case study of Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. Land Use Policy, 22(3), 187-196. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2004.03.003
Tian, G., Yang, Z., & Zhang, Y. (2007). The Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Pattern of Rural Residential Land in China in the 1990s Using Landsat TM Images and GIS. Environ Manage, 40, 803–813. DOI 10.1007/s00267-006-0048-6
Verburg, H., Chen, Y. & Veldkamp, T. (2000). Spatial explorations of land use change
and grain production in China. Elsevier, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 82 (2000) 333–354.www.elsevier.com/locate/agee
Xie, Y., Yu, M. Guangjin, T., & Xuerong, X. (2005). Socio-economic driving forces of arable land conversion: A case study of Wuxian City, China. Global Environmental Change, 15 (2005) 238–252. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.03.002a
Zhupley, I., Potenko, T., Gubarkov, S., Tretyak, N., & Grafov, R. (2018). Structural Shifts and Reform of the Agrarian Sector of the Russian Economy under the Conditions of the Import Substitution Policy. Space and Culture, India, 6(4), 25-35. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v6i4.385
Published
2019-03-31
How to Cite
Nandi, S., & Mistri, T. (2019). Rural Settlement Expansion and its Effect on Food Security in Salanpur, West Bengal, India. Space and Culture, India, 6(5), 198-214. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v6i5.346