Main Article Content
By the end of the Millennium Development Goal's target year, 2015, India had been declared as a country, which has made moderate progress in terms of improvement in basic sanitation provision for all. Yet open defecation is still a regular practice of a significant proportion of the population in both urban and rural areas. The Indian government has been trying to address this problem for the last three decades through different programmes. However, though the effort is laudable, in reality, the countrywide situation is not so praiseworthy. Lack of sanitation provisions affects people in different ways with different intensities along the lines of class, gender, age, disability, and marginality. In Darjeeling city, due to lack of proper sanitation facilities, a significant portion of the population uses public toilets, which are less in number compared to the demand. People face a variety of difficulties and hurdles in using public toilets, and as a result, continue to practice open defecation during the night and early morning. Among the users, women and adolescent girls suffer more than the others. Moreover, in this city, a significant portion of the population faces acute water crisis during the dry months. This empirical study tries to explore the different ways through which women and adolescent girls are affected by the lack of safe sanitation facilities within the house premises. The article also argues that lack of sanitation provision should be considered as a matter of violence against women and adolescent girls because the situation makes them vulnerable to the risk of being violated or sexually abused.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Bhattacharyya, R. (2014). Good Governance and Development Mandate. Space and Culture, India.2 (1): 1â€“3,
Bhattacharyya, R. (2013). Are We Empowered? Stories of young Indian working women, SaarbrÃ¼cken, Germany: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, (ISBN: 978-3-659-20580-4)
Bhattacharyya, R. (2009). Examining the changing status and role of middle class Assamese women: lessons from the lives of university students. PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle, United Kingdom. Retrieved on 28 February 2018 from, https://theses.ncl.ac.uk/dspace/handle/10443/303
Census of India.(2011). Household Amenities Data. New Delhi: GOI.
Chaplin, S. E. (2011). The politics of sanitation in India. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Limited.
Darjeeling Municipality.(2012). Project Report of Conservancy Department.
Dash, A. J. (1947).Bengal District Gazetteer. Alipore: Bengal government press.
Gender Development Group. (2002). Water, sanitation and gender equity. Washington DC: World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGENDER/Resources/watersanitation.pdf.
Gender Tool Box (Brief). (2015). Women, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Sida.1-5.
Ibanez, E. L.I. (2011). Municipality, space and the social determinants of health. Environment and Urbanization 23(1): 113â€“117.
Joshi, D., Fawcett, B., and Mannan, F. (2011).Health, hygiene and appropriate sanitation: experiences and perceptions of the urban poor. Environment and Urbanization 23(1): 91â€“111.
Kennedy-Walker, R., Amezaga, J. M. and Paterson, C. A. (2015).The role of power, politics and history in achieving sanitation service provision in informal urban environments: a case study of Lusaka, Zambia. Environment and Urbanization 27(2): 489â€“504.
Kulkarni, S., Oâ€™Reilly, K., & Bhat, S. 2017. No relief: lived experiences of inadequate sanitation access of poor urban women in India. Gender and Development 25(2): 167â€“183.
Kumar, D.M. (2014). Thirsty cities: How Indian cities can meet their water needs. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Kumar, S. G., Kar, S. S, Jain, A. (2011). Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies. Indian Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine 15 (3): 93â€“96. Retrieved from http://www.ijoem.com/text.asp?2011/15/3/93/93196
Kundu, A. (1993). In the Name of the Urban Poor: Access to Basic Amenities. New Delhi: SAGE.
Mara, D. and Evans, B. (2011).Sanitation and Water Supply in Low Income Countries. Ventus Publishing ApS.
Minh, H. V. and Hung, N. V. (2011).Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries. Environmental Health Insights 5: 63â€“70.
Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India. (2015). Menstrual Hygiene Management: National Guidelines. New Delhi: GOI.
Nallari, A. (2015). â€œAll we want are toilets inside our homes!â€ The critical role of sanitation in the lives of urban poor adolescent girls in Bengaluru, India. Environment and Urbanization 27(1): 73â€“88.
Oâ€™Reilly, K. (2016). Surviving as an Unequal Community: WASH for Those on the Margins, in P. Jackson et al. (eds), Eating, Drinking: Surviving. (pp. 51â€“56). Springer Briefs in Global Understanding.
Samanta, G. &Koner, K. (2016).Urban Political Ecology of Water in Darjeeling, India. South Asian Water Studies 5 (3): 42â€“57.
Satterthwaite, D. (Ed.). (2011). Editorial: Why is urban health so poor even in many successful cities? Environment and Urbanisation 23(1): 5â€“11.
Satterthwaite, D., Mitlin, D., and Bartlett, S. (eds). (2015). Editorial: Is it possible to reach low-income urban dwellers with good-quality sanitation? Environment and Urbanisation 27(1): 3â€“18.
Shaban, A. and Sharma, R. N. (2007).Water consumption pattern in domestic households in major cities. Economic and Political Weekly 42(23): 2190â€“2197.
Sommer, M., Ferron, S., Cavill, S. and House, S. (2014).Violence, gender and WASH: spurring action on a complex, under-documented and sensitive topic. Environment and Urbanization 27(1): 105â€“116.
Sweetman, C. &Medland, L. (2017) Introduction: Gender and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Gender and Development 25(2): 153â€“166.
Thara, K. 2017. In Troubled Waters: Water Commodification, Law, Gender, and Poverty in Bangalore. Gender and Development 25(2): 253â€“268.
The Hindu. (October 02, 2016). What numbers tell us about Open Defecation in India. Retrieved from â€“ http://www.thehindu.com/data/What-numbers-tell-us-about-Open-Defecation-in-India/article15422326.ece
Thompson, J., Porrars, Ina. T., Wood, E., Tumwine, J. K., Mujwahuzi, M. R., Katui-Katua, M. and Johnstone, N. (2000).Waiting at the Tap: Changes in urban water use in east Africa over three decades. Environment and Urbanisation 12(2): 37â€“52.
UN-HABITAT. (2006). Framework for Gender Mainstreaming: Water and Sanitation for Cities. pp. 1â€“31. Retrieved from http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/GenderMainsteamReport.pdf
UNICEF. (2014). The rights to water and sanitation. Current issues, No 3. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/media/files/Current_Issues_Paper-_The_Rights_to_Safe_Water_and_Sanitation.pdf
UN WATER.(2015). Eliminating discrimination and inequalities in access to water and sanitation. Geneva, Switzerland: UN-Water Technical Advisory Unit. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Water/DiscriminationPolicy.pdf
Vedachalam, S. and Riha, S. J. (2015).Whoâ€™s the cleanest of them all? Sanitation scores in Indian cities. Environment and Urbanization 27(1): 117â€“136.
Wankhade, K. (2015). Urban sanitation in India: Key shifts in the national policy frame. Environment and Urbanization 27(2): 555â€“572.
WaterAid.(2011). Sustainability framework. Retrieved from www.wateraid.org/publications
WaterAid. (2012). Empowering women and girls: How water, sanitation and hygiene deliver gender equality. pp 1â€“17. Ethiopia: WaterAid Eastern Africa Region.
Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). (2010). Gender in Water and Sanitation. Working paper. Nairobi, Kenya: World Bank. pp. 1â€“37.
World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Childrenâ€™s Fund (UNICEF). (2006). Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: The Urban and Rural Challenge of the Decade. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Childrenâ€™s Fund UNICEF: (2010) Progress on sanitation and drinking water-2010 update. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Childrenâ€™s Fund (UNICEF).(2014). Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation - 2014 Update, Joint Monitoring Programme. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2014/jmp-rport/en
World Health Organisation (WHO) and United Nations Childrenâ€™s Fund (UNICEF).(2017). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (Update and SDG baseline).Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Zerah, M.H. (2000). Water: Unreliable supply in Delhi.New Delhi: Manohar Publishers.