Main Article Content
There are two perspectives in which the understanding of food sustainability in the world is entangled. The first perspective which believes that food sustainability can be achieved by technology presents shifting cultivation as a reflection of a lower state of cultural evolution in comparison with more sophisticated societies (O’Brien 2002).The second perspective which believes in culture, in the ‘way of life’ paradigm valorise shifting cultivation as a form of indigenous genius, representing the indigenous people as perhaps the original environmentalist (Bandy et al.1993; Conklin 1957; Grandstaff 1981; Hong 1987).
The biasness of both the perspectives is well visible. The task now is to document and evaluate indigenous strategies of shifting cultivation through a process of research and development. This process involves identification of promising indigenous practices, characterization of the practices, validation of the utility of the practice for other communities, extrapolation to other locations, verification with key farmers, and wide-scale extension.
This can be treated as the third perspective available to the policy makers. By this, the detrimental effects of shifting cultivation can be mitigated and productivity increased (Mali 2003).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Bandy, D.E, Garrity D.P and Sanchez P.A 1993 the worldwide problem of slash and burn agriculture, Agroforestry Today 5(3) pp 2-6.
Berkes, F. 2008 “Sacred Ecology”, U.S.A: Routledge.
Berkes, Fikret. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.
Berkes, F., J. Colding, and C. Folke. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10:1251–1262.
Cairns M and Garrity D P 1999 Improving shifting cultivation in Southeast Asia by building
on indigenous fallow management strategies in Agroforestry Systems 47: 37–48, 1999.
Conklin H (1954) An ethnoecological approach to shifting agriculture. Transactions New York Academy of Sciences, Series II 17: 133–142
Conklin HC (1957) Hanunoo Agriculture: A Report on an Integral System of Shifting Cultivation in the Philippines. FAO Forestry Development Paper No 12, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy
Daily Gretchen C. and Paul R. Ehrlich 1996 Global Change and Human susceptibility to Disease in Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 1996. 21:125–44
De Foresta H and Michon G (1997) The agroforest alternative to Imperata grasslands: when smallholder agriculture and forestry reach sustainability. In: Garrity DP (ed) Agroforestry Innovations for Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation, pp 105–120. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands and the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya.
Dobson AP, Carper R. 1992. Global warming and potential changes in hostparasite and disease-vector relationships. In Global Warming and Biodiversity, ed. RL Peters. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
DSWC, 1995. A report on the survey of shifting cultivation in Meghalaya. Directorate of Soil and Water Conservation (DSWC), Government of Meghalaya, Shillong.
Gadgil D R 1964 Technologies for the Total Development Plan in Appropriate Technologies for Indian Industry, SIET Institute Hyderabad.
Grandstaff T 1981 Shifting Cultivation: A reassessment of Strategies, Ceres July-August pp.28-30
Gupta A.K 2000 Shifting Cultivation and Conservation of Biological
Diversity in Tripura, Northeast India in Human Ecology Vol. 28, No. 4.
Grenier, L. 1998. Working with Indigenous Knowledge: A Guide for Researchers. Ottawa, On: IRDC.
Hong E 1987 Natives of Sarawak: Survival in Borneos Vanishing Forest, Institute Masyarakat, Penang, Malaysia
Kumar Ashish, Bruce G.Marcot and P.S. Roy 2006 Spatial Patterns and Processes for Shifting Cultivation Landscape in Garo Hills, India in Landscape ecology 2006
Momin, P. G., 1984. Physical setting of Garo Hills. In, L, S. Gassah (ed.). Garo Hills land and the people. Ornsons publications, New Delhi, 235 p.
Majumdar ,D.N. 1956. Garos. Gauhati: Lawyers Book Stall.
Majumdar, D.N. 1978. Culture Change in Two Garo Villages. Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India.
Mali B 2003 The Problem of Shifting Cultivation in the Garo Hills of North-, 1860-197 in Conservation and Society, 1,2 SAGE Publications, New Delhi.
Mukherjee, Sumit “Geo-Medical Aspects Of Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases In Meghalaya” in Martin J. Bunch, V. Madha Suresh and T. Vasantha Kumaran, eds., Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Environment and Health, Chennai, India, 15-17December,2003. Chennai: Department of Geography, University of Madras and Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University. Pages 276-283
Myers, N. (1992). Tropical forests: the policy challenge. Environmentalist 12: 15–27.
Nielsen, U., Mertz, O., and Noweg, G. T. (2006). The rationality of shifting cultivation systems: labor productivity revisited. Human Ecology 34: 210–218. doi:10.1007/s10745-006-9014-4.
Padoch, C., Coffey, K., Mertz, O., Leisz, S., Fox, J., and Wadley, R. L. (2007). The demise of swidden in Southeast Asia? Local realities and regional ambiguities. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography 107: 29–41.
O’Brien W E the Nature of AShifting Cultivation: Stories of Harmony, Degradation and Redemption in Human Ecology, Vol.30, No.4, Dec 2002.
Sachs J 2010 The Hindu Saturday August 7th 2010 check for this
Schumacher E. F , 1989.Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered, Harper Perennial.
Slater C 1996 Amazonia as Edenic Narrative in Uncommin Grounds: rethinking the Human Place in Nature (Cronon W ed.), G.Koff & Co. Batavia, Java, pp-237-247.
Swaminathan M.S 2010 From Green to Ever-Green revolution, Academic Foundation, New Delhi.
Westoby, J. (1989). Introduction to World Forestry: People and Their Trees, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, U.K.
Whitmore, T. C. 1975. Tropical Rain Forests of the far East, Claredon Press, Oxford, U.K.
Wright Richard T 2008 Environmental Science: Pearson Education, Inc.