Main Article Content
Although households in the coastal areas of Bangladesh undertake various adaptation and coping measures to minimise their vulnerability to cyclone hazards and salinity intrusion, these autonomous measures have received little attention in the past. However, the Government of Bangladesh has recently emphasised the importance of understanding these measures so that necessary interventions to make households more resilient to natural hazards and the adverse impacts of climate change can be introduced. This paper, based on secondary sources, explores adaptation and coping measures that households in the coastal areas of Bangladesh undertake to minimise their vulnerability to cyclone hazards and salinity intrusion. This paper shows that many of the adaptation and coping measures contribute to making households less vulnerable and more resilient to cyclone hazards and salinity intrusion, although some coping measures do the opposite as they reduce households’ adaptive capacities instead of improving them. This paper argues that the adaptation and coping measures that contribute to reducing households’ vulnerability to natural hazards need to be supported and guided by the government and NGOs to make them more effective. Additionally, measures that make households more vulnerable also need to be addressed by the government and NGOs, as most of these measures are related to and constrained by both poverty, and because the households have little or no access to economic opportunities.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Ahmed, A. U., Haq, S., Nasreen, M., & Hassan, A. W. (2015). Sectoral Inputs towards the Formulation of Seventh Five-Year Plan (2016 – 2021): Climate Change and Disaster Management (Rep.). Retrieved April 30, 2017, from http://plancomm.gov.bd/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/11a_Climate-Change-and-Disaster-Management.pdf
Alam, E., & Collins, A. E. (2010). Cyclone Disaster Vulnerability and Response Experiences in Coastal Bangladesh. Disasters, 34(4), 931-954. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7717.2010.01176.x
Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I., & Wisner, B. (1994). At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters. London: Routledge.
Care International. (2009). Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook (First Edition). Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf
Department of Disaster Management. (2013). Emergency Preparedness Plan for Cyclone. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief.
Disaster Management Bureau. (2010). National Plan for Disaster Management 2010-2015. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Disaster Management and Relief Division. Retrieved May 1, 2017, from http://modmr.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/modmr.portal.gov.bd/law/49c13857_0831_474f_bb64_f8d7db0eb4ac/Nataional_Plan_for_Disaster__2010_2015__Final_Version-.pdf
Disaster Management Information Centre. (2015). Situation Report. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief. Retrieved May 1, 2017, from http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/SitRep-150730.pdf
Garai, J. (2017). Qualitative Analysis of Coping Strategies of Cyclone Disaster in Coastal Area of Bangladesh. Natural Hazards, 85(1), 425-435. doi: 10.1007/s11069-016-2574-8
International Organisation for Migration. (2010). Assessing the Evidence: Environment, Climate Change and Migration in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Khan, A. E., Ireson, A., Kovats, S., Mojumder, S. K., Khusru, A., Rahman, A., & Vineis, P. (2011). Drinking Water Salinity and Maternal Health in Coastal Bangladesh: Implications of Climate Change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(9), 1328-1332.
Khanom, T. (2016). Effect of Salinity on Food Security in the Context of Interior Coast of Bangladesh. Ocean & Coastal Management, 130, 205-212. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.06.013
Mainuddin, K., Rahman, A., Islam, N., & Quasem, S. (2011). Planning and Costing Agriculture’s Adaptation to Climate Change in the Salinity-prone Cropping System of Bangladesh (Publication). London, UK: International Institute for Environment and Development. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G03173.pdf
Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief. (2015). National Disaster Management Policy. Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved May 1, 2017, from http://modmr.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/modmr.portal.gov.bd/policies/d95dd631_9f63_4ac1_8229_a606ec84fb54/Published%20DM%20Policy%202015.pdf
Ministry of Environment and Forests. (2005). National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/napa/ban01.pdf
Ministry of Environment and Forests. (2009). Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan 2009. Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved May 1, 2017, from http://www.climatechangecell.org.bd/Documents/climate_change_strategy2009.pdf
Ministry of Water Resources. (2005). Coastal Zone Policy. Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://lib.pmo.gov.bd/legalms/pdf/Costal-Zone-Policy-2005.pdf
Monnereau, I., & Abraham, S. (2013). Limits to Autonomous Adaptation in Response to Coastal Erosion in Kosrae, Micronesia. International Journal of Global Warming, 5(4), 416-432. doi:10.1504/ijgw.2013.057283
Parvin, G. A., Takahashi, F., & Shaw, R. (2008). Coastal Hazards and Community-Coping Methods in Bangladesh. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 12(4), 181-193. doi: 10.1007/s 11852-009-0044-0
Paul, B. K., & Rashid, H. (2017). Climatic Hazards in Coastal Bangladesh: Non-Structural and Structural Solutions. Butterworth-Heinemann Publications, Elsevier Inc.
Paul, S. K., & Routray, J. K. (2011). Household Response to Cyclone and Induced Surge in Coastal Bangladesh: Coping Strategies and Explanatory Variables. Natural Hazards, 57(2), 477-499. doi: 10.1007/s11069-010-9631-5
Pender, J. S. (2010). Climate Change, its Impacts and Possible Community-Based Responses in Bangladesh (Second Edition). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Church of Bangladesh. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://uploads.ecocongregationscotland.org/uploads/Climate%20Change%20in%20Bangladesh_Sept%202010.pdf
Pouliotte, J., Islam, N., Smit, B., & Islam, S. (2006). Livelihoods in Rural Bangladesh (pp. 18-22, 59). Tiempo. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://www.uoguelph.ca/gecg/images/userimages/Pouliotte%20et%20al.%20 (2006).pdf
Rabbani, G., Rahman, A., & Mainuddin, K. (2013). Salinity-induced Loss and Damage to Farming Households in Coastal Bangladesh. International Journal of Global Warming, 5(4), 400-415. doi:10.1504/ijgw.2013.057284
Rahman, M. A. (2009). Salt Is Killing Us: Salinity and Livelihood in Bangladesh Village (Unpublished Master's thesis). Lund University. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1529179&fileOId=1543283
Rashid, H., & Paul, B. K. (2014). Climate Change in Bangladesh: Confronting Impending Disasters. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Saha, S. K. (2016). Cyclone Aila, Livelihood Stress, and Migration: Empirical Evidence from Coastal Bangladesh. Disasters. doi:10.1111/disa.12214
Saha, S. K., & James, H. (2017). Reasons for Non-Compliance with Cyclone Evacuation Orders in Bangladesh. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 21, 196-204. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.12.009
Sarwar, M. G. (2005). Impacts of Sea Level Rise on the Coastal Zone of Bangladesh (Unpublished Master's thesis). Lund University. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://www.pg-du.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/golam_sarwar.pdf
Swapan, M. S., & Gavin, M. (2011). A Desert in the Delta: Participatory Assessment of Changing Livelihoods Induced by Commercial Shrimp Farming in Southwest Bangladesh. Ocean & Coastal Management, 54(1), 45-54. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.011
United Nations. (2010). Cyclone Aila: Joint UN Multi-sector Assessment and Response Framework. Retrieved July 22, 2016, from http://www.lcgbangladesh.org/derweb/Needs%20Assessment/Reports/Aila_UN_AssessmentFramework_FINAL.pdf
United Nations Development Programme. (2007). UNDP Human Development Report 2007 Background Paper on Risks, Vulnerability and Adaptation in Bangladesh. New York, USA: UNDP. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/rahman_alam_alam_uzzaman_rashid_rabbani.pdf
United Nations Development Programme. (2012). Review of Development Partners’ Response to Cyclone Aila. New York, USA. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://www.solutionexchange-un.net/repository/bd/cdrr/update14-res1-en.pdf
United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction. (2009). 2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR.
Van der Geest, K., & Dietz, T. (2004). A Literature Survey about Risk and Vulnerability in Drylands, with a Focus on the Sahel. In The Impact of Climate Change on Drylands, with a focus on West Africa (Vol. 39, Environment & Policy, pp. 117-146). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Van der Geest, K., & Warner, K. (2015). Vulnerability, Coping and Loss and Damage from Climate Events. In Hazards, Risks, and Disasters in Society (pp. 121-144). Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-396451-9.00008-1
Warner, K., Van der Geest, K., Kreft, S., Huq, S., Harmeling, S., Kusters, K., & Sherbinin, A. D. (2012). Evidence from the Frontlines of Climate Change: Loss and Damage to Communities despite Coping and Adaptation (Publication No. 9). Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://loss-and-damage.net/download/6815.pdf