The problem of the religious tolerance culture that helps to preserve socio-political stability in the society has become a significant theoretical and practical research problem. In the paper, the authors analyse the activities of some religious organisations in Kazakhstan trying to identify the ways of forming a culture of religious tolerance. They focus on the role of Islam, Orthodox Christianity, and Catholicism in the context of interfaith dialogue and assess the experience of preserving interethnic and interconfessional relations.
The authors argue that tolerance in a multi-ethnic society implies not only recognition of the existing ethno cultural, religious, and confessional differences within the community but also the awareness of the “unity in diversity.” The latter helps to prevent the existing ethno cultural differences from the institutionalised dominance. The authors also note that the common civic identity ensures the “unity in diversity” in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The article considers the campaign of the Macedonian King Philip II against the Scythians in 339 B.C. The principal objectives of this study were to determine the plans of King Philip II and the balance of the forces of the opposing parties. The study also analysed the course of the military operations and the results of the campaign. The study uses a multifaceted approach to probe the ancient narrative sources. It also makes a content analysis of the data, retrieved from various national scientific schools. The analyses reveal that Philip conducted a military campaign against Ateas with the help of small expeditionary forces that moved from Byzantion to the mouth of the River Istros (Danube). Philip's enemy Ateas was a ruler of a small Scythian kingdom in Dobrudzha. The primary goals of the Macedonian king’s campaign were to capture booty and help the local allies. A desire to morally compensate for the unsuccessful completion of the sieges of Perinthos and Byzantion was the central motive of the campaign. The result of the war was determined in a single pitched battle. Despite the defeat of the Scythians in Dobrudzha, Philip could not deliver the captured booty to Macedonia because of the limited forces. The Triballoi captured this booty, and this devalued the success of the whole Scythian campaign.
This article aims to provide a historical ground for future research on geopolitical and economic transformations in Asia. It is devoted to the current situation around two Central Asian megaprojects: The U.S.'s "New Silk Road" and China's "One Belt One Road" (OBOR). Authors compare perspectives of these two initiatives and their impact on the economy and political landscape in Asia to evaluate the future of the region. Considering strategies of both countries, the authors conclude that "New Silk Road" is unable to compete with OBOR in Central Asia and, in fact, the U.S. had to concede the region to China. Even the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) that was considered overweight for OBOR has failed after Donald Trump's arrival to power. The current situation is favoured for China, and the only issue left for future discussions is whether Beijing possesses enough resources to do the projects in both Central and South Asia.
The article compares the dramatic works of the famous writers Slawomir Mrozek, Tadeusz Rozewicz and Sadykbek Adambekov, Kaltay Mukhamedzhanov in the aspect of Kazakh-Polish literary ties that have had a long history. The analysis is conducted taking into account the socio-political situation, which was formed in the 1960s-1980s and found its reflection in the plays written by these authors.
The authors emphasise that the influence of historical and social problems on the personality, moral-humanistic principles, etc. are interpreted not only by the course of action of the drama (conflicts of characters) but implemented by the psychology of the characters. The role of the characters’ language is taken into account, the similarity and difference in the thematic, artistic-ideological, compositional, and plot structure of the plays of Kazakh and Polish playwrights are determined, and their artistic skills in creating the system of images are identified.
Separate provisions of the article are reasoned by the conclusions and statements of well-known Anglo-American, Polish, Russian and Kazakh scientists, which can be found in their scientific-theoretical and scientific-methodical works concerning the problems of the study of artistic ties in the history of world literature.
This article is concerned with studying the influence of conservatism on the modern Arabic lexicography, namely the structure of its dictionary entries and interpretation methods. "The Large Arabic Dictionary" of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo has been chosen as the object of research since lexicographers regard it as the newest stage in the centuries-long evolution of the Arabic lexicography. Based on "The Large Arabic Dictionary", the comparative analysis touches upon the peculiarities of a modern general purpose dictionary of the Arabic language, definitions, methods of recording primary and derived verbs, and types of supporting data. The consistency between modern dictionaries of the Arabic language and their classical, medieval counterparts is analysed with regard to methods of organisation and interpretation. Omissions made by medieval lexicographers due to complex definitions and unsystematised dictionary entries are critically examined.